Sleep and Breathing

, Volume 16, Issue 4, pp 1255–1265

Sleepiness, fatigue, and risk of obstructive sleep apnea using the STOP-BANG questionnaire in multiple sclerosis: a pilot study

  • Robert A. Dias
  • Kimberly A. Hardin
  • Heather Rose
  • Mark A. Agius
  • Michelle L. Apperson
  • Steven D. Brass
Original Article

DOI: 10.1007/s11325-011-0642-6

Cite this article as:
Dias, R.A., Hardin, K.A., Rose, H. et al. Sleep Breath (2012) 16: 1255. doi:10.1007/s11325-011-0642-6

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims: (1) to identify patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) who are at high risk for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) by utilizing the STOP-BANG questionnaire and (2) to evaluate the relationship between OSA risk as determined by the STOP-BANG questionnaire and self-reported sleepiness and fatigue using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS), respectively.

Methods

A total of 120 consecutive patients presenting to the UC Davis Neurology MS Clinic were invited to participate in an anonymous survey. The exclusion criteria were: age <18 years, indefinite MS diagnosis, or incomplete survey.

Results

There were 103 subjects included in our study: 42% of subjects (n = 43) met the criteria for high-risk OSA, 69% of subjects (n = 71) screened high for fatigue (FSS ≥ 4), but only 24 subjects (23%) screened high for excessive daytime sleepiness (ESS > 10). In males, 44% of the variation in ESS scores and 63% in FSS scores were explained by the STOP-BANG components. However, only 17% of the variation in ESS scores and 15% of the variation in FSS scores was explained by the STOP-BANG components in females.

Conclusions

Over 40% of MS patients were identified as high risk for OSA based on the STOP-BANG questionnaire. The STOP-BANG questionnaire offers clinicians an efficient and objective tool for improving detection of OSA risk in MS patients.

Keywords

Obstructive sleep apnea Multiple sclerosis Sleepiness Fatigue 

Abbreviations

AHI

Apnea–hypopnea index

BMI

Body mass index

EEG

Electroencephalography

ESS

Epworth Sleepiness Scale

FSS

Fatigue Severity Scale

OSA

Obstructive sleep apnea

MS

Multiple sclerosis

PSG

Polysomnography

UC

University of California

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert A. Dias
    • 1
    • 2
  • Kimberly A. Hardin
    • 1
  • Heather Rose
    • 3
  • Mark A. Agius
    • 2
  • Michelle L. Apperson
    • 2
  • Steven D. Brass
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep MedicineSacramentoUSA
  2. 2.Department of NeurologyUC Davis Medical CenterSacramentoUSA
  3. 3.School of EducationUC DavisDavisUSA