In Vivo Bioluminescence Imaging of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Gene Expression in Vascular Inflammation
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Inflammation plays a critical role in atherosclerosis and is associated with upregulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). We studied bioluminescence imaging (BLI) to track iNOS gene expression in a murine model of vascular inflammation.
Macrophage-rich vascular lesions were induced by carotid ligation plus high-fat diet and streptozotocin-induced diabetes in 18 iNOS-luc reporter mice. In vivo iNOS expression was imaged serially by BLI over 14 days, followed by in situ BLI and histology.
BLI signal from ligated carotids increased over 14 days (9.7 ± 4.4 × 103 vs. 4.4 ± 1.7 × 103 photons/s/cm2/sr at baseline, p < 0.001 vs. baseline, p < 0.05 vs. sham controls). Histology confirmed substantial macrophage infiltration, with iNOS and luciferase expression, only in ligated left carotid arteries and not controls.
BLI allows in vivo detection of iNOS expression in murine carotid lesions and may provide a valuable approach for monitoring vascular gene expression and inflammation in small animal models.
- In Vivo Bioluminescence Imaging of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Gene Expression in Vascular Inflammation
Molecular Imaging and Biology
Volume 13, Issue 6 , pp 1061-1066
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- Vascular inflammation
- Inducible nitric oxide synthase
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- Author Affiliations
- 1. Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, 300 Pasteur Drive, Room H2157, Stanford, CA, 94305-5233, USA
- 2. Division of Cardiology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA, USA
- 3. Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA
- 4. Department Microbiology/Immunology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA