State-of-the-art non-targeted metabolomics in the study of chronic kidney disease
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- Boelaert, J., t’Kindt, R., Schepers, E. et al. Metabolomics (2014) 10: 425. doi:10.1007/s11306-013-0592-z
Here we report a metabolomics discovery study conducted on blood serum samples of patients in different stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Metabolites were monitored on a quality controlled holistic platform combining reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry in both negative and positive ionization mode and gas chromatography coupled to quadrupole mass spectrometry. A substantial portion of the serum metabolome was thereby covered. Eighty-five metabolites were shown to evolve with CKD progression of which 43 metabolites were a confirmation of earlier reported uremic retention solutes and/or uremic toxins. Thirty-one unique metabolites were revealed which were increasing significantly throughout CKD progression, by a factor surpassing the level observed for creatinine, the currently used biomarker for kidney function. Additionally, 11 unique metabolites showed a decreasing trend.