Metabolomics

, Volume 10, Issue 3, pp 425–442

State-of-the-art non-targeted metabolomics in the study of chronic kidney disease

  • J. Boelaert
  • R. t’Kindt
  • E. Schepers
  • L. Jorge
  • G. Glorieux
  • N. Neirynck
  • F. Lynen
  • P. Sandra
  • R. Vanholder
  • K. Sandra
Original Article

DOI: 10.1007/s11306-013-0592-z

Cite this article as:
Boelaert, J., t’Kindt, R., Schepers, E. et al. Metabolomics (2014) 10: 425. doi:10.1007/s11306-013-0592-z

Abstract

Here we report a metabolomics discovery study conducted on blood serum samples of patients in different stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Metabolites were monitored on a quality controlled holistic platform combining reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry in both negative and positive ionization mode and gas chromatography coupled to quadrupole mass spectrometry. A substantial portion of the serum metabolome was thereby covered. Eighty-five metabolites were shown to evolve with CKD progression of which 43 metabolites were a confirmation of earlier reported uremic retention solutes and/or uremic toxins. Thirty-one unique metabolites were revealed which were increasing significantly throughout CKD progression, by a factor surpassing the level observed for creatinine, the currently used biomarker for kidney function. Additionally, 11 unique metabolites showed a decreasing trend.

Keywords

Chronic kidney disease Metabolomics GC–MS LC–MS Q-TOF Serum 

Supplementary material

11306_2013_592_MOESM1_ESM.docx (288 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 289 kb)

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Boelaert
    • 2
  • R. t’Kindt
    • 1
  • E. Schepers
    • 3
  • L. Jorge
    • 1
  • G. Glorieux
    • 3
  • N. Neirynck
    • 3
  • F. Lynen
    • 2
  • P. Sandra
    • 1
  • R. Vanholder
    • 3
  • K. Sandra
    • 1
  1. 1.Metablys, Research Institute for ChromatographyKortrijkBelgium
  2. 2.Separation Science Group, Department of Organic ChemistryGhent UniversityGhentBelgium
  3. 3.Nephrology SectionUniversity Hospital GhentGhentBelgium