Metabolome profiling reveals adaptive evolution of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during repeated vacuum fermentations
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- Ding, MZ., Zhou, X. & Yuan, YJ. Metabolomics (2010) 6: 42. doi:10.1007/s11306-009-0173-3
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The adaptive evolution of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to repeated vacuum fermentations was investigated by metabolomic analysis using gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The first round (VFI, 30 cycles) and second round (VFII, 10 cycles) of repeated fermentations could be clearly distinguished by principal components analysis on intracellular metabolites, indicating that significant difference of metabolic states occurred between them. Further investigation revealed that higher levels of glycerol, trehalose, myo-inositol and glutamate might be involved in response to vacuum stress during initial cycles, while the decreases in their levels indicated that yeast cells adapted to vacuum condition as the fermentation progressed. Furthermore, lower levels of glycerol, myo-inositol, trehalose and glutamate during VFII indicated that the adapted yeast represented better vacuum tolerance. Additionally, glycolysis and TCA cycle intermediates were enhanced whereas glycerol biosynthesis was depressed by vacuum. The decreases of most amino acids might be related to increases in intermediates of glycolysis and TCA cycle as VFI progressed. These findings provided new insights into underlying mechanisms in adaptive evolution of yeast under vacuum condition.