Mind & Society

, Volume 11, Issue 1, pp 3–13

Defining features versus incidental correlates of Type 1 and Type 2 processing


DOI: 10.1007/s11299-011-0093-6

Cite this article as:
Stanovich, K.E. & Toplak, M.E. Mind Soc (2012) 11: 3. doi:10.1007/s11299-011-0093-6


Many critics of dual-process models have mistaken long lists of descriptive terms in the literature for a full-blown theory of necessarily co-occurring properties. These critiques have distracted attention from the cumulative progress being made in identifying the much smaller set of properties that truly do define Type 1 and Type 2 processing. Our view of the literature is that autonomous processing is the defining feature of Type 1 processing. Even more convincing is the converging evidence that the key feature of Type 2 processing is the ability to sustain the decoupling of secondary representations. The latter is a foundational cognitive requirement for hypothetical thinking.


Dual process theoryCognitive decouplingAutonomy

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Human Development and Applied PsychologyUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyYork UniversityTorontoCanada