Tree Genetics & Genomes

, Volume 9, Issue 2, pp 397–408

Pinus monticola pathogenesis-related gene PmPR10-2 alleles as defense candidates for stem quantitative disease resistance against white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola)

Original Paper

DOI: 10.1007/s11295-012-0561-0

Cite this article as:
Liu, JJ., Hammett, C. & Sniezko, R.A. Tree Genetics & Genomes (2013) 9: 397. doi:10.1007/s11295-012-0561-0


White pine blister rust, caused by the invasive fungus Cronartium ribicola, has been responsible for extremely high mortality of native western white pine (Pinus monticola) and other five-needle pines in natural stands throughout western North America. The presence of this non-native fungus has also led to greatly restricted use of western white pine for reforestation. A few families of defense proteins have been found as functional candidates involved in tree resistance to rust infection. Here we report genetic variation of a gene encoding a family 10 pathogenesis-related (PR) protein (PmPR10-2) in open-pollinated seed families with different levels of stem quantitative disease resistance (QDR). Six novel alleles and five common genotypes were identified inside the PmPR10-2 locus: these genetic variations included 33 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) throughout the gene regions and copy variation of a rare octanucleotide simple sequence repeat (SSR), 5′-AATTATTT-3′, in the gene intron. PmPR10-2 exhibited a moderate level (average r2 = 0.42) of linkage disequilibrium. Two-thirds of the identified SNPs and the SSR marker were significantly associated with stem QDR levels. The PmPR10-2 genotype (H3:H3) exhibited the highest level of stem QDR (P < 0.01). Cost-effective and co-dominant SSR markers were developed and used for genotyping the PmPR10-2 locus using simple PCR, providing a potential molecular tool for accelerating screening efforts of white pine resistance against C. ribicola.


Association analysis Quantitative disease resistance (QDR) Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) Simple sequence repeat (SSR) White pine blister rust (WPBR) 

Supplementary material

11295_2012_561_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (120 kb)
Supplementary Fig. S1Alignment analysis of PmPR10-2 nucleotide sequences. Multiple sequence alignment analysis was performed using an on-line ClustalW2 program provided by the European Bioinformatics Institute ( (PDF 120 kb)
11295_2012_561_MOESM2_ESM.pdf (175 kb)
Supplementary Fig. S2Phylogenetic analysis of the PmPR10-2 genomic sequences. Based on PmPR10-2 nucleotide sequence alignment result as shown in Fig. S1, a representative of phylogenetic trees was generated by MEGA 5.0 software using the neighbor-joining (NJ) method (PDF 174 kb)

Copyright information

© Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jun-Jun Liu
    • 1
  • Craig Hammett
    • 1
  • Richard A. Sniezko
    • 2
  1. 1.Pacific Forestry Centre, Canadian Forest ServiceNatural Resources CanadaVictoriaCanada
  2. 2.Dorena Genetic Resource CenterUSDA Forest ServiceCottage GroveUSA

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