International Advances in Economic Research

, Volume 18, Issue 3, pp 287-297

First online:

Open Access This content is freely available online to anyone, anywhere at any time.

Estimation of Concentration Measures and Their Standard Errors for Income Distributions in Poland

  • Alina JędrzejczakAffiliated withChair of Statistical Methods, Faculty of Economics, University of Lodz Email author 


Measures of concentration (inequality) are often used in the analysis of income and wage size distributions. Among, them the Gini and Zenga coefficients are of greatest importance. It is well known that income inequality in Poland increased significantly in the period of transformation from a centrally planned economy to a market economy. High income inequality can be a source of serious problems, such as increasing poverty, social stratification, and polarization. Therefore, it seems especially important to present reliable estimates of income inequality measures for a population of households in Poland in different divisions. In this paper, some estimation methods for Gini and Zenga concentration measures are presented together with their application to the analysis of income distributions in Poland by socio-economic groups. The basis for the calculations was individual data coming from the Polish Household Budget Survey conducted by the Central Statistical Office. The standard errors of Gini and Zenga coefficients were estimated by means of the bootstrap and the parametric approach based on the Dagum model.


Income distribution Income inequality Variance estimation


C10 J30