Pollution-related changes in oxidative stress and antioxidant defense profile in the blood of white stork Ciconia ciconia chicks from different regions of Poland
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- Tkachenko, H. & Kurhaluk, N. Ecol Res (2013) 28: 869. doi:10.1007/s11284-013-1070-9
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Changes in the lipid peroxidation and oxidatively modified protein levels as well as the antioxidant defense system in the blood of white stork (Ciconia ciconia) chicks were analyzed during their development in nests in polluted and control environments. The control, relatively pure, environment was the village of Kłopot, with no industrial plants within a radius of 150 km. Blood samples were also collected in two polluted areas, including (1) the suburban village of Czarnowo, located 20 km from the city of Zielona Góra (southwestern Poland) and (2) an area near the town of Głogów, where a large copper smelter is situated. The effects of various ecological threats from different environments tended to initiate oxidative stress and decrease total antioxidant capacity. The initiation of lipid peroxidation and increases in the levels of carbonyl derivatives of oxidative amino acids were observed in the plasma of chicks from polluted areas. Plasma catalase and the selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase activities of erythrocytes were significantly higher in chicks from polluted areas than in those from control areas. Oxidative stress and components of the antioxidant defense system, especially glutathione peroxidase activity, can be used as indicators of oxidative stress, which was found to be greater in the polluted areas (near the Głogów copper smelter). Research into oxidative stress biomarkers can aid assessments of the conditions of birds, and points to a positive association with miscellaneous environmental loads.