, Volume 21, Issue 2, pp 292-300

Expansion of the geographical distribution of an exotic ladybird beetle, Adalia bipunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), and its interspecific relationships with native ladybird beetles in Japan

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Abstract

The first record of the exotic ladybird beetle, Adalia bipunctata (Coleoptera; Coccinellidae), in Japan was in 1993 at Osaka Nanko Central Park. Since that time, studies on the life history and geographical distribution of A. bipunctata have been ongoing, and its establishment in the Osaka Nanko area has been confirmed. A. bipunctata is a predacious ladybird beetle and a member of a guild that overlaps in habitat and prey with that of native ladybird beetles such as Harmonia axyridis and Menochilas sexmaculatus. We investigated the distribution of A. bipunctata and its interspecific relationships with native predacious ladybird beetles. In some areas, A. bipunctata was dominant in interspecific relationships with native ladybird beetles. For the first 10 years after A. bipunctata was discovered, it occurred only in the Osaka Nanko area, but the present geographical distribution indicates that it has expanded its range. Though the population density of this species was highest at the area recorded first, and tended to decrease in inverse proportion to the distance from Osaka Nanko Central Park, a satellite occurrence was observed in a remote area. The numbers of aphid and tree species (leaf shelter for aestivation and over-wintering) utilized by A. bipunctata have recently increased. Such increases will cause the rate of distribution of A. bipunctata to accelerate. Interspecific competition between H. axyridis and A. bipunctata, which occurs earlier than H. axyridis, may be avoided by desynchronization of the occurrence seasons, and another common predacious ladybird beetle, Coccinella septempunctata, may escape interspecific competition by habitat segregation.