, Volume 12, Issue 6, pp 691-707
Date: 19 May 2006

Energy balanced data propagation in wireless sensor networks

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Abstract

We study the problem of energy-balanced data propagation in wireless sensor networks. The energy balance property guarantees that the average per sensor energy dissipation is the same for all sensors in the network, during the entire execution of the data propagation protocol. This property is important since it prolongs the network’:s lifetime by avoiding early energy depletion of sensors.

We propose a new algorithm that in each step decides whether to propagate data one-hop towards the final destination (the sink), or to send data directly to the sink. This randomized choice balances the (cheap) one-hop transimssions with the direct transimissions to the sink, which are more expensive but “bypass” the sensors lying close to the sink. Note that, in most protocols, these close to the sink sensors tend to be overused and die out early.

By a detailed analysis we precisely estimate the probabilities for each propagation choice in order to guarantee energy balance. The needed estimation can easily be performed by current sensors using simple to obtain information. Under some assumptions, we also derive a closed form for these probabilities.

The fact (shown by our analysis) that direct (expensive) transmissions to the sink are needed only rarely, shows that our protocol, besides energy-balanced, is also energy efficient.

This work has been partially supported by the IST/FET/GC Programme of the European Union under contract numbers IST-2001-33135 (CRESCCO) and 6FP 001907 (DELIS). A perliminary version of the work appeared in WMAN 2004 [11].
Charilaos Efthymiou graduated form the Computer Engineering and Informatics Department (CEID) of the University of Patras, Greece. He received his MSc from the same department with advisor in S. Nikoletseas. He currently continuous his Ph.D studies in CEID with advisor L. Kirousis. His research interest include Probabilistic Techniques and Random Graphs, Randomized Algorithms in Computationally Hard Problems, Stochastic Processes and its Applications to Computer Science.
Dr. Sotiris Nikoletseas is currently a Senior Researcher and Managing Director of Research Unit 1 (“Foundations of Computer Science, Relevant Technologies and Applications”) at the Computer Technology Institute (CTI), Patras, Greece and also a Lecturer at the Computer Engineering and Informatics Department of Patras University, Greece. His research interests include Probabilistic Techniques and Random Graphs, Average Case Analysis of Graph Algorithms and Randomized Algorithms, Fundamental Issues in Parallel and Distributed Computing, Approximate Solutions to Computationally Hard Problems. He has published scientific articles in major international conferences and journals and has co-authored (with Paul Spirakis) a book on Probabilistic Techniques. He has been invited speaker in important international scientific events and Universities. He has been a referee for the Theoretical Computer Science (TCS) Journal and important international conferences (ESA, ICALP). He has participated in many EU funded R&D projects (ESPRIT/ALCOM-IT, ESPRIT/GEPPCOM). He currently participates in 6 Fifth Framework projects: ALCOM-FT, ASPIS, UNIVERSAL, EICSTES (IST), ARACNE, AMORE (IMPROVING).
Jose Rolim is Full Professor at the Department of Computer Science of the University of Geneva where he leads the Theoretical Computer Science and Sensor Lab (TCSensor Lab). He received his Ph.D. degree in Computer Science at the University of California, Los Angeles working together with Prof. S. Greibach. He has published several articles on the areas of distributed systems, randomization and computational complexity and leads two major projects on the area of Power Aware Computing and Games and Complexity, financed by the Swiss National Science Foundation. Prof. Rolim participates in the editorial board of several journals and conferences and he is the Steering Committee Chair and General Chair of the IEEE Distributed Computing Conference in Sensor Systems.