, Volume 28, Issue 12, pp 3399-3408,
Open Access This content is freely available online to anyone, anywhere at any time.

Adhesion of yeast cells to different porous supports, stability of cell-carrier systems and formation of volatile by-products

Abstract

The aim of our research was to study how the conditions of immobilization influence cell attachment to two different ceramic surfaces: hydroxylapatite and chamotte tablets. Three fermentative yeast strains, namely brewery TT, B4 (ale, lager) and distillery Bc15a strains belonging to Saccharomyces spp., and one strain of Debaryomyces occidentalis Y500/5 of weak fermentative nature, but with high amylolytic activity due to extracellular α-amylase and glucoamylase, were used in this study. Different media, including cell starvation, were applied for immobilization of yeast strains as well as different phases of cell growth. Immobilization of selected yeasts on a hydroxylapatite carrier was rather weak. However, when incubation of starved yeast cells was conducted in the minimal medium supplemented by calcium carbonate, the scale of immobilization after 24 h was higher, especially for the D. occidentalis strain. Adhesion to hydroxylapatite carriers in wort broth was of reversible character and better results of adhesion were observed in the case of another ceramic carrier-chamotte. The number of immobilized cells was about 106–107 per tablet and cell adhesion was stable during the whole fermentation process. The comparison of the volatile products that were formed during fermentation did not show any significant qualitative and quantitative differences between the free and the immobilized cells. This is the first time when a cheap, porous chamotte surface has been applied to yeast adhesion and fermentation processes.