Characterization of industrial strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae exhibiting filamentous growth induced by alcohols and nutrient deprivation
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- Silva, P.C.., Horii, J., Miranda, V.S. et al. World J Microbiol Biotechnol (2007) 23: 697. doi:10.1007/s11274-006-9287-1
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The use of microorganisms in biotechnology is an important economic area of interest in Brazil, especially the use of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the baking and alcohol fermentation industries. Dimorphism in S. cerevisiae (cell morphology alterations from budding cells to filamentous structures) has been observed in conditions of nitrogen and carbon deprivation and in the presence of fusel alcohols. This can be described as a defense mechanism that allows the yeast to forage for nutrients through cell elongation, hyphal formation and invasive growth. In this work fifteen industrial strains of S. cerevisiae (including haploid and diploid strains) isolated from the fermentative process for alcohol production were characterized for filamentation on solid culture media under growth conditions of carbon- and nitrogen-deprivation and in the presence of fusel alcohols. The majority of strains showed filamentation induced by isoamyl alcohol, butanol, isopropanol and isobutanol, but not by methanol. In rich medium (YEPD), both haploid and diploid strains showed invasive growth, although this kind of filamentous growth was more common in haploid strains. Similar results were observed when fructose or mannose was used as the sole carbon source. In nitrogen-deficient medium (SLAD) the strains did not filament. The results obtained indicate that the filamentation induced by higher alcohols and carbon deprivation (specially carbon) is a common process in industrial strains of S. cerevisiae contributing towards their maintenance/survival in adverse conditions.