Water, Air, and Soil Pollution

, Volume 182, Issue 1, pp 173–185

Chloride Deposition and Distribution in Soils Along a Deiced Highway – Assessment Using Different Methods of Measurement


DOI: 10.1007/s11270-006-9330-8

Cite this article as:
Lundmark, A. & Olofsson, B. Water Air Soil Pollut (2007) 182: 173. doi:10.1007/s11270-006-9330-8


A comparison was made of the ability of three different methods to describe the deposition and distribution of chloride from deicing salt in the roadside environment along a highway: direct sampling of airborne deposition (including snow ploughing) in containers; soil sampling and analysis of chloride content in the topsoil; and direct current resistivity measurements. Each method showed a distribution with significant decreasing values with increasing distance from the road. Two transport mechanisms, splash and spray, were identified when describing the airborne deposition. A mathematical model that includes these two transport mechanisms was adopted, and the total amount of airborne deposition on the ground 0–100 m from the road was estimated to approximately 45% of the salt applied on the road. The main part of the chloride spread by air and ploughing ended up within 10 m from the road. The soil sampling and resistivity measurements also showed the highest impact within this distance. The variation in chloride content in the soils reflected a poorer drainage ability of fine-grained soils compared to more coarse-grained soils. The resistivity measurements represented an integrated value of the differences in geology, water content and salinity. The increase in resistivity with distance from road in the topsoil was interpreted to reflect the distribution of chloride from deicing salt.


deicing saltmonitoringdepositionresistivitysoil contentroadside environment

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Land and Water Resources EngineeringRoyal Institute of TechnologyStockholmSweden