Assessment of Metal Availability in a Contaminated Soil by Sequential Extraction
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
A contaminated soil from Pieve Vergonte (Piedmont, Italy) has been investigated in order to point out the availability and extractability of a series of metal ions and consequently their potential release into other environmental compartments. A sequential extraction procedure has been adopted in order to subdivide total concentrations into five operational fractions with different potential toxicity. A chemometric analysis has been used for the characterization of similarities or differences of behaviour.
High concentrations of the main pollutants, namely Cu, Pb and Zn, were extracted into the exchangeable, carbonate-bound/specifically adsorbed and Fe-Mn oxide bound fractions, showing the risk of release of these metals into the environment.
A remobilization of Cr, Mn and Ni could also take place, but to a lesser extent. The other investigated metals (Al, Fe, La, Sc, V, Ti and Y) were mainly bound to the residual and, in some samples, to the Fe-Mn oxide bound fractions.
The high availability of several potentially toxic metals shows that the soil needs remediation.
- Abollino, O., Aceto, M., Malandrino, M., Mentasti, E., Sarzanini, C. and Barberis, R.: 2002, ‘Distribution and mobility of metals in contaminated sites. Chemometric investigation of pollutant profiles’, Environmental Pollution 119, 177–193. CrossRef
- Adamo, P., Arienzo, M., Bianco, M. R., Terribile, F. and Violante, P.: 2002, ‘Heavy metal contamination of the soils used for stocking raw materials in the former ILVA iron steel industrial plant of Bagnoli (southern Italy)’, Sci. Total Environ. 295, 17–34. CrossRef
- Ahumada, I., Mendoza, J., Navarrete, E. and Ascar, L.: 1999, ‘Sequential extraction of heavy metals in soils irrigated with wastewater’, Comm. Soil Sci. & Plant Analysis 30, 1507–1519.
- Barona, A., Aranguiz, I. and Elias, A.: 1999, ‘Zinc and copper distribution in soils and their removal by chelating extraction’, J. Chem. Technol. & Biotechnol. 74, 700–708. CrossRef
- Bermond, A. P. and Yousfi, I.: 1997, ‘Reliability of comparisons based on sequential extraction procedures applied to soil samples: the thermodynamic point of view’, Environ. Technol. 18, 219–224.
- Burt, R., Wilson, M. A., Keck, T. J., Dougherty, B. D., Strom, D. E. and Lindahl, J. A.: 2003, ‘Trace element speciation in selected smelter-contaminated soils in Anaconda and Deer Lodge Valley, Montana, USA’, Adv. Environ. Res. 8, 51–67. CrossRef
- Cave, M. R. and Wragg, J.: 1997, ‘Measurement of trace element distribution in soils and sediments using sequential leach data and a non-specific extraction system with chemometric data processing’, Analyst 122, 1211–1221. CrossRef
- Chlopecka, A.: 1996, ‘Forms of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in soils and their uptake by cereal crops when applied jointly as carbonates’, Water, Air & Soil Pollution 87, 297–309. CrossRef
- Das, A. K., Chakraborty, R., Cervera, M. L. and de la Guardia, M.: 1995, ‘Metal speciation in solid matrices’, Talanta 42, 1007–1030. CrossRef
- Davidson, C. M., Duncan, A. L., Littlejohn, D., Ure, A. M. and Garden, L. M.: 1998, ‘A critical evaluation of the three-stage BCR sequential extraction procedure to assess the potential mobility and toxicity of heavy metals in industrially-contaminated land’, Analyt. Chim. Acta 363, 45–55. CrossRef
- Delmas, C., Larpin, L., Legret, M. and Astruc, M.: 2002, ‘Mobility and adsorption capacity of Pb and Zn in a polluted soil from a road environment: Laboratory batch experiments’, Environ. Technol. 23, 381–390. CrossRef
- Einax, J. W., Zwanziger, H. W. and Geiss, S.: 1997, ‘Chemometrics in Environmental Analysis’, VCH, Weinheim.
- Elass, K., Laachac, A. and Azzi, M.: 2004, ‘Three-stage sequential extraction procedure for metal partitioning in polluted soils and sediments’, Ann. Chim. (Rome) 94, 325–332. CrossRef
- Gleyzes, C., Tellier, S. and Astruc, M.: 2002, ‘Sequential extraction procedures for the characterisation of the fractionation of elements in industrially-contaminated soils’, in: Quevauviller Ph. (Ed.), Methodologies in Soil and Sediment Fractionation Studies, Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, pp. 66–104. CrossRef
- Gòmez Ariza, J. L., Giràldez, I., Sànchez-Rodas, D. and Morales, E.: 2000, ‘Selectivity assessment of a sequential extraction procedure for metal mobility characterization using model phases’, Talanta 52, 545–554. CrossRef
- Gupta, S. K. and Aten, C.: 1993, ‘Comparison and evaluation of extraction media and their suitability in a simple model to predict the biological relevance of heavy metal concentrations in contaminated soils’, J. Environ. Chem. 51, 25–46. CrossRef
- Hall, G. E. E., Gauthier, G., Pelchat, J. C., Pelchat, P. and Vaive, J.: 1996, ‘Application of a sequential extraction scheme to ten geological certified reference materials for the determination of 20 elements’, J. Spectrom. 11, 787–796. CrossRef
- Ho, M. D. and Evans, G. J.: 1997, ‘Operational speciation of cadmium, copper, lead and zinc in the NIST Standard Reference Materials 2710 and 2711 (Montana soil) by the BCR sequential extraction procedure and flame atomic absorption spectrometry’, Analyt. Comm. 34, 363–364. CrossRef
- Kabata-Pendias A. and Pendias, H.: 1984, Trace Elements in Soils and Plants, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
- Li, X., Coles, B.J., Ramsey, M. and Thornton, I.: 1995, ‘Chemical partitioning of the new National Institute of Standards and Technology Standard Reference Materials (SRM 2709–2711) by sequential extraction using Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry’, Analyst 120, 1415–1419. CrossRef
- Lua, Y., Gonga, Z., Zhanga, G. and Burghardtc, W.: 2003, ‘Concentrations and chemical speciations of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cr of urban soils in Nanjing, China’, Geoderma 115, 101–111. CrossRef
- Maiz, I., Arambarri, I., Garcia, R. and Millàn, E.: 2000, ‘Evaluation of heavy metal availability in polluted soils by two sequential extraction procedures using factor analysis’, Environ. Poll. 110, 3–9. CrossRef
- Ministerial Decree: 1999a, Italian Official Gazzette no. 248.
- Ministerial Decree: 1999b, Italian Official Gazzette no. 293.
- Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment: 2000, Circular on Target Values and Intervention Values for Soil Remediation. Netherlands Government Gazzette no 39.
- Mossop, K. F. and Davidson, C. M.: 2003, ‘Comparison of original and modified BCR sequential extraction procedures for the fractionation of copper, iron, lead, manganese and zinc in soils and sediments’, Analyt. Chim. Acta 478, 111–118. CrossRef
- Pueyo, M., Lopez-Sanchez, J. F. and Rauret, G.: 2004, ‘Assessment of CaCl2, NaNO3 and NH4NO3 extraction procedures for the study of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn extractability in contaminated soils’, Analyt. Chim. Acta 504, 217–226. CrossRef
- Quevauviller Ph. (Ed): 2002, Methodologies in Soil and Sediment Fractionation Studies, Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge.
- Reddy, K. R., Xu, C. Y. and Chinthamreddy, S.: 2001, ‘Assessment of electrokinetic removal of heavy metals from soils by sequential extraction analysis’, J. Hazardous Materials B84, 279–296. CrossRef
- Sahuquillo, A., Rigol, A. and Rauret, G.: 2003, ‘Overview of the use of leaching/extraction tests for risk assessment of trace metals in contaminated soils and sediments’, Trends Analyt. Chem. 22, 152–159. CrossRef
- Santamaria-Fernandez, R., Moreda-Pineiro, A. and Hill, S. J.: 2002, ‘Optimization of a multielement sequential extraction method employing an experimental design approach for metal partitioning in soils and sediments’, J. Environ. Monit. 4, 330–336. CrossRef
- Shuman, L. M., Dudka, S. and Das, K.: 2001, ‘Zinc forms and plant availability in a compost amended soil’, Water, Air & 128, 1–11. CrossRef
- Sun, B., Zhao, F. J., Lombi, E. and McGrath, S.P.: 2001, ‘Leaching of heavy metals from contaminated soils using EDTA’, Environ. Poll. 113, 111–120.
- Tessier, A., Campbell, P. G. C. and Bisson, M.: 1979, ‘Sequential extraction procedure for the speciation of particulate trace metals’, Analyt. Chem. 51, 844–851. CrossRef
- Ure, A. M., Quevauviller, P., Muntau, H. and Griepink, B.: 1993, ‘Speciation of heavy metals in soils and sediments. An account of the improvement and harmonization of extraction techniques undertaken under the auspices of the BCR of the Commission of the European Communities’, J. Environ. Chem. 51, 135–151. CrossRef
- Van der Sloot, H. A., Comans, R. N. J. and Hjelmar, O.: 1996, ‘Similarities in the leaching behaviour of trace contaminants from waste, stabilized waste, construction materials and soils’, Sci. Total Environ. 178, 111–126. CrossRef
- Van Herreweghe, S., Swennen, R., Vandecasteele, C. and Cappuyns, V.: 2003, ‘Solid phase speciation of arsenic by sequential extraction in standard reference materials and industrially contaminated soil samples’, Environ. Poll. 122, 323–342. CrossRef
- Wilkins, R. G.: 1991, Kinetics and Mechanisms of Reactions of Transition Metal Complexes, VCH, pp. 202–203.
- Wong, S. C., Li, X. D., Zhang, G., Qi, S. H. and Min, Y. S.: 2002, ‘Heavy metals in agricultural soils of the Pearl River Delta, South China’, Environ.. 119, 33–44.
- Zhai, M., Kampunzu, H. A. B., Modisi, M. P. and Totolo, O.: 2003, ‘Distribution of heavy metals in Gaborone urban soils (Botswana) and its relationship to soil pollution and bedrock composition’, Environ. Geol. 45, 171–180. CrossRef
- Zhang, T., Shan, X. and Li, F.: 1998, ‘Comparison of two sequential extraction procedures for speciation analysis of metals in soils and plant availability’, Comm. Soil Science & Plant Analysis 29, 1023–1034. CrossRef
- Assessment of Metal Availability in a Contaminated Soil by Sequential Extraction
Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
Volume 173, Issue 1-4 , pp 315-338
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Springer Netherlands
- Additional Links
- cluster analysis
- contaminated soil
- principal component analysis
- sequential extraction
- Industry Sectors
- Author Affiliations
- 1. Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Torino, Via P. Giuria 5, 10125, Torino, Italy
- 2. Department of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of East Piedmont, Spalto Marengo 33, 15100, Alessandria, Italy
- 3. Environmental Protection Agency of the Regional Government of Piedmont (ARPA Piemonte), Via Principessa Clotilde 1, 10144, Torino, Italy