Water Resources Management

, Volume 27, Issue 2, pp 451–473

Multi-Source Multi-Sector Sustainable Water Supply Under Multiple Uncertainties: An Inexact Fuzzy-Stochastic Quadratic Programming Approach


DOI: 10.1007/s11269-012-0196-9

Cite this article as:
Tan, Q., Huang, G.H. & Cai, Y.P. Water Resour Manage (2013) 27: 451. doi:10.1007/s11269-012-0196-9


This paper presents the development and the first application of a superiority–inferiority-based inexact fuzzy-stochastic quadratic programming (SI-IFSQP) approach for sustainable water supply under multiple uncertainties. SI-IFSQP improves conventional nonlinear programming by tackling multiple uncertainties within an individual parameter; SI-IFSQP is also superior to existing inexact methods due to its reflection of economies of scale and reduction of computational requirements. An interactive solution algorithm with high computational efficiency was also proposed. The application of SI-IFSQP to long-term planning of a multi-source multi-sector water supply system demonstrated its applicability. The close reflection of system complexities, such as multiple uncertainties, scale economies and dynamic parameters, could enhance the robustness of the optimization process as well as the acceptability of obtained results. Corresponding to varied system conditions and decision priorities, the interval solutions from SI-IFSQP could help generate a series of long-term water supply strategies under a number of economic, environmental, ecological, and water-security targets.


Water supplySustainable developmentDecision makingUncertaintyInexact quadratic programmingFuzzy-random boundary interval

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.MOE Key Laboratory of Regional Energy and Environmental Systems Optimization, Resources and Environmental Research AcademyNorth China Electric Power UniversityBeijingChina
  2. 2.Institute for Energy, Environment and Sustainable Communities—Environment CanadaUniversity of ReginaReginaCanada
  3. 3.Faculty of Engineering and Applied ScienceUniversity of ReginaReginaCanada
  4. 4.State Key Laboratory of Water Environment SimulationSchool of Environment, Beijing Normal UniversityBeijingChina