Water, Air, & Soil Pollution: Focus

, Volume 4, Issue 6, pp 251–258

Applying metabolic fingerprinting to ecology: The use of Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy for the rapid screening of plant responses to N deposition


  • Ed Gidman
    • Institute of Biological SciencesUniversity of Wales
  • Royston Goodacre
    • Department of ChemistryUMIST
  • Bridget Emmett
    • Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Bangor
  • Lucy J. Sheppard
    • Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Edinburgh
  • Ian D. Leith
    • Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Edinburgh
    • Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Edinburgh

DOI: 10.1007/s11267-005-3035-7

Cite this article as:
Gidman, E., Goodacre, R., Emmett, B. et al. Water Air Soil Pollut: Focus (2005) 4: 251. doi:10.1007/s11267-005-3035-7


The potential for metabolic fingerprinting via Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy to provide a novel approach for the detection of plant biochemical responses to N deposition is examined. An example of spectral analysis using shoot samples taken from an open top chamber (OTC) experiment simulating wet ammonium deposition is given. Sample preparation involved oven drying and homogenisation via mill grinding. Slurries of a consistent dilution were then prepared prior to FT-IR analysis. Spectra from control, 8 and 16 kg N ha−1 yr−1 treatments were then subjected to cross-validated discriminant function analysis. Ordination diagrams showed clear separation between the three N treatments examined. The potential for using Calluna vulgaris (L.) Hull as a bioindicator of N deposition is further evident from these results. The results also clearly demonstrate the power of FT-IR in discriminating between subtle phenotypic alterations in overall plant biochemistry as affected by ammonium pollution.


ammonium depositionCalluna vulgarischemometricscritical loadmetabolic fingerprintingplant response

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© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2004