, Volume 86, Issue 2-3, pp 256-274

Analysis of Rain and Snow in Frequency Space

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Abstract

Dynamic weather such as rain and snow causes complex spatio-temporal intensity fluctuations in videos. Such fluctuations can adversely impact vision systems that rely on small image features for tracking, object detection and recognition. While these effects appear to be chaotic in space and time, we show that dynamic weather has a predictable global effect in frequency space. For this, we first develop a model of the shape and appearance of a single rain or snow streak in image space. Detecting individual streaks is difficult even with an accurate appearance model, so we combine the streak model with the statistical characteristics of rain and snow to create a model of the overall effect of dynamic weather in frequency space. Our model is then fit to a video and is used to detect rain or snow streaks first in frequency space, and the detection result is then transferred to image space. Once detected, the amount of rain or snow can be reduced or increased. We demonstrate that our frequency analysis allows for greater accuracy in the removal of dynamic weather and in the performance of feature extraction than previous pixel-based or patch-based methods. We also show that unlike previous techniques, our approach is effective for videos with both scene and camera motions.