, Volume 44, Issue 3, pp 459-465,
Open Access This content is freely available online to anyone, anywhere at any time.
Date: 10 Feb 2012

Genetic characterization of H5N1 influenza viruses isolated from chickens in Indonesia in 2010


Since 2003, highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses have caused outbreaks among poultry in Indonesia every year, producing the highest number of human victims worldwide. However, little is known about the H5N1 influenza viruses that have been circulating there in recent years. We therefore conducted surveillance studies and isolated eight H5N1 viruses from chickens. Phylogenic analysis of their hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes revealed that all eight viruses belonged to clade 2.1.3. However, on the basis of nucleotide differences, these viruses could be divided into two groups. Other viruses genetically closely related to these two groups of viruses were all Indonesian isolates, suggesting that these new isolates have been evolving within Indonesia. Among these viruses, two distinct viruses circulated in the Kalimantan islands during the same season in 2010. Our data reveal the continued evolution of H5N1 viruses in Indonesia.