Virus Genes

, Volume 43, Issue 2, pp 201–207

Analysis of DNA methylation in human BK virus

  • Chi-Fang Chang
  • Meilin Wang
  • Chiung-Yao Fang
  • Pei-Lain Chen
  • Shu-Fen Wu
  • Michael W. Y. Chan
  • Deching Chang

DOI: 10.1007/s11262-011-0627-3

Cite this article as:
Chang, CF., Wang, M., Fang, CY. et al. Virus Genes (2011) 43: 201. doi:10.1007/s11262-011-0627-3


Human BK virus may cause nephropathy due to viral replication in patients who have undergone renal transplantation. However, the mechanism regulating replication of BKV is still not clear. Previous studies have suggested that epigenetic modifications may play a crucial role in virus replication. In this study, the DNA methylation profiles of five CpG sites located within the promoter/enhancer regions and nine CpG sites located within the early and late coding regions of the replicating BKV genome were investigated. BKV genomic DNA from mature virions and from the early and late phases of replicating BKV were examined for DNA methylation by bisulfite sequencing that covered 14 CpG sites. Our results showed that none of the examined BKV DNA from the various different stages of replication was methylated. This is the first report to analyze the methylation of BKV genomic DNA during viral replication. The results seem to indicate that methylation is not involved in regulation of BKV replication.


BKV Replication DNA methylation Bisulfite sequencing 



BK virus


JC virus


Merkel cell polyomavirus


Trichodysplasia spinulosa polyomavirus


Human polyomavirus


Polyomavirus nephropathy


Hepatitis B virus


Human papillomavirus


Estein–Barr virus


Human immunodeficiency virus


Immunofluorescent assay


Kaposi’s Sarcoma-associated herpesvirus


DNA methyltransferase


Latent-associated transcripts

Supplementary material

11262_2011_627_MOESM1_ESM.jpg (818 kb)
Fig. S1. Replication of BKV. Vero cells were infected by BKV. LT (a) and VP1 (b) were detected by immunofluorescent assay using anti-LT and anti-VP1 antibodies on day 3, 8, 13, 18, 23, and 28 post-infection. The percentage of positive cells were quantified and this is shown in panel c. (JPEG 817 kb)

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chi-Fang Chang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Meilin Wang
    • 3
  • Chiung-Yao Fang
    • 4
  • Pei-Lain Chen
    • 5
  • Shu-Fen Wu
    • 1
  • Michael W. Y. Chan
    • 1
  • Deching Chang
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Molecular BiologyNational Chung Cheng UniversityChia-YiTaiwan
  2. 2.Department of Chemistry and BiochemistryNational Chung Cheng UniversityChia-YiTaiwan
  3. 3.Department of Microbiology and ImmunologyChung Shan Medical UniversityTaichungTaiwan
  4. 4.Department of UrologyChia-Yi Christian HospitalChia-YiTaiwan
  5. 5.Department of Medical Laboratory Science and BiotechnologyCentral Taiwan University of Science and TechnologyTaichungTaiwan

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