High-density lipoprotein in uremic patients: metabolism, impairment, and therapy
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- Khoueiry, G., Abdallah, M., Saiful, F. et al. Int Urol Nephrol (2014) 46: 27. doi:10.1007/s11255-012-0366-y
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Several studies have shown that HDL has altered antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in chronic uremia, either by the reduction in its antioxidant enzymes or by the impairment of their activity. Systemic oxidative stress, which is highly prevalent in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, has been shown to decrease antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of HDL and even transform it into a pro-oxidant and pro-inflammatory agent. For this reason, we believe that the propensity for accelerated cardiovascular disease in CKD is facilitated by a few key features of this disease, namely, oxidative stress, inflammation, hypertension, and disorders of lipid metabolism. In a nutshell, oxidative stress and inflammation enhance atherosclerosis leading to increased cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in this population. In this detailed review, we highlight the current knowledge on HDL dysfunction and impairment in chronic kidney disease as well as the available therapy.