, Volume 45, Issue 1, pp 1-9
Date: 17 Nov 2012

Factors that impact the outcome of endoscopic correction of vesicoureteral reflux: a multivariate analysis

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To identify independent factors that may predict vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) resolution after endoscopic treatment using dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer (Deflux®) in children free of anatomical anomalies.

Materials and methods

A retrospective study was conducted in our pediatric referral center from 1998 to 2011 on children with primary VUR who underwent endoscopic injection of Deflux® with or without concomitant autologous blood injection (called HABIT or HIT, respectively). Children with secondary VUR or incomplete records were excluded from the study. Potential factors were divided into three categories including preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative. Success was defined as no sign of VUR on postoperative voiding cystourethrogram. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were constructed to identify independent factors that may predict success. Odds ratio (OR) and 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) for prediction of success were estimated for each factor.


From 485 children received Deflux® injection, a total of 372 with a mean age of 3.10 years (ranged from 6 months to 12 years) were included in the study and endoscopic management was successful in 322 (86.6 %) of them. Of the patients, 185 (49.7 %) underwent HIT and 187 (50.3 %) underwent HABIT technique. On univariate analysis, VUR grade from preoperative category (OR = 4.79, 95 % CI = 2.22–10.30, p = 0.000), operation technique (OR = 0.33, 95 % CI = 0.17–0.64, p = 0.001) and presence of mound on postoperative sonography (OR = 0.06, 95 % CI = 0.02–0.16, p = 0.000) were associated with success. On multivariate analysis, preoperative VUR grade (OR = 4.85, 95 % CI = 2.49–8.96, p = 0.000) and identification of mound on postoperative sonography (OR = 0.07, 95 % CI = 0.01–0.18, p = 0.000) remained as independent success predictors.


Based on this study, successful VUR correction after the endoscopic injection of Deflux® can be predicted with respect to preoperative VUR grade and presence of mound after operation.