International Urology and Nephrology

, Volume 41, Issue 3, pp 559–565

The use of the Ki-67 marker in the pathological diagnosis of the epithelioid variant of renal angiomyolipoma

  • Sue Min Ooi
  • Justin B. Vivian
  • Ronald J. Cohen
Urology - Original Paper

DOI: 10.1007/s11255-008-9473-1

Cite this article as:
Ooi, S.M., Vivian, J.B. & Cohen, R.J. Int Urol Nephrol (2009) 41: 559. doi:10.1007/s11255-008-9473-1



Epithelioid angiomyolipoma (EAML) is a rare malignant variant of renal angiomyolipoma (AML). There were 34 cases of EAML reported in 25 studies (including this present study) over the past decade. About 68% were females and 32% males. The mean age was 40.1 years, 53% developed metastatic disease after nephrectomy, and eight patients had TSC. All cases are reported positive when stained with HMB-45 which also labels all classical AML. This study evaluates the use of Ki-67 (proliferation marker) in the pathological diagnosis of EAML and distinction from classical AML.


Immunohistochemical reactions for Ki-67 were generated on multiple representative blocks of tissue obtained from two cases of HMB-45 positive EAML and four cases of classic AML and the percentage of positively staining cells estimated.


Both cases of EAML were strongly positive for Ki-67 while all four classic AML were completely negative.


The Ki67 is a useful marker in which distinguishes the malignant epithelioid variant of AML from classic AML.


Epithelioid variantRenal angiomyolipomaRenalKi-67Proliferative marker

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sue Min Ooi
    • 1
  • Justin B. Vivian
    • 1
  • Ronald J. Cohen
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of UrologyRoyal Perth HospitalPerthAustralia
  2. 2.Department of PathologyUroPathPerthAustralia