Able KW, Manderson JP, Studholme AL (1998) The Distribution of Shallow Water Juvenile Fishes in an Urban Estuary. Estuaries 21(4):731–744CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Airoldi L, Bulleri F (2011) Anthropogenic disturbance can determine the magnitude of opportunistic species responses on marine urban infrastructures. PLoS ONE 6(8):e22985. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0022985
Airoldi L, Abbiati M, Beck M, Hawkins S, Jonsson P, Martin D, Moschella P, Sundelof A, Thompson R, Aberg P (2005) An ecological perspective on the deployment and design of low-crested and other hard coastal defense structures. Coastal Engineering 52:1073–1087CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Akeda, S., K. Yano, A. Nagano, and I. Nakauchi. (1995). Improvement Works of Fishing Port Taken with Care to Artificial Formation of Seaweed Beds. Pages 394–399 in Proceedings of the International Conference of Ecological System Enhancements Technology for Aquatic Environments (Tokyo, Japan).
Alevras, R. (2010). Waterfront Edge Design for the Rising Tide and Aquatic Life. Presentation at the 2010 Waterfront Conference—The Future Waterfront and Funding for the NY-NJ Harbor, Tuesday, 30 November 2010 in New York, NY. Hosted by the Metropolitan Waterfront Alliance.
Alevras, R. and S. Zappala. (2008). Incorporating Aquatic Habitat Values in Working Waterfronts. Page 21 in Coastal Footprints: Minimizing Human Impacts, Maximizing Stewardship. The Coastal Society.
Alexander, C. (2012). Field Assessment and Simulation of Shading from Alternative Dock Construction Materials. Technical report to the Office of Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource Management, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, award number #NA08NOS4190461. Available online at: http://www.skio.usg.edu/research/geo/sedimentology/downloads/FACM.pdf
Barwick R, Kwak T (2004) Fish Populations Associated with Habitat-Modified Piers and Natural Woody Debris in Piedmont Carolina Reservoirs. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 24:1120–1133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Beatley T (2011) Biophilic Cities: Integrating nature into urban design and planning. Island Press, WashingtonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Beaumont N, Austen M, Mangi S, Townsend M (2008) Economic valuation for the conservation of marine biodiversity. Marine Pollution Bulletin 56(3):386–396CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Becker A, Whitfield A, Cowley P, Järnegren J, Næsje T (2012) Potential effects of artificial light associated with anthropogenic infrastructure on the abundance and foraging behaviour of estuary-associated fishes. Journal of Applied Ecology 50(1):43–50. doi:10.1111/1365-2664.12024
Blanton, S., R. Thom, A. Borde, H. Diefenderfer, and J. Southard. (2002). Evaluation of Methods to Increase Light Under Ferry Terminals. Technical Report PNNL-13714, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Sequim, Washington.
Browne M, Chapman MG (2011) Ecologically Informed Engineering Reduces Loss of Intertidal Biodiversity on Artificial Shorelines. Environmental Science and Technology 45(19):8204–8207CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Browne M, Chapman MG (2014) Mitigating against the loss of species by adding artificial intertidal pools to existing seawalls. Marine Ecology Progress Series 497:119–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bulleri F (2005) Experimental evaluation of early patterns of colonization of space on rocky shores and seawalls. Marine Environmental Research 60:355–374CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Bulleri F, Airoldi L (2005) Artificial marine structures facilitate the spread of a non-indigenous green alga. Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides in the north Adriatic Sea. Journal of Applied Ecology 42:1063–1072CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bulleri F, Chapman M (2009) The introduction of coastal infrastructure as a driver of change in marine environments. Journal of Applied Ecology 47(1):26–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bulleri F, Chapman M, Underwood A (2004) Patterns of movement in of the limpet Cellana tramoserica on rocky shores and retaining seawalls. Marine Ecology Progress Series 281:121–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Castellan, A. and R. Kelty. (2005). Small Dock and Pier Management Workshop Workbook. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.
Cermak M (2002) Caranx latus (Carangidae) chooses dock pilings to attack silverside schools: A tactic to interfere with stereotyped escape behavior of prey? The Biological Bulletin 203(2):241–243CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Chapman M (2003) Paucity of mobile species on constructed seawalls: effects of urbanization on biodiversity. Marine Ecology Progress Series 264:21–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chapman M (2006) Intertidal Seawalls as Habitats for Molluscs. Journal of Molluscan Studies 72:247–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chapman D (2011) Engaging Places: Localizing Urban Design and Development Planning. Journal of Urban Design 16(4):511–530CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chapman M, Bulleri F (2003) Intertidal seawalls—new features of landscape in intertidal environments. Landscape and Urban Planning 62:159–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chapman M, Underwood A (2011) Evaluation of ecological engineering of “armoured” shorelines to improve their value as habitat. Journal of experimental marine biology and ecology 400(1–2):302–313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Choi CG, Takeuchi Y, Terawaki T, Serisawa Y, Ohno M, Sohn CH (2002) Ecology of seaweed beds on two types of artificial reef. Journal of Applied Phycology 14:343–349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
City of Seattle. (2013). Design Oversight Subcommittee Habitat Presentation. Online at: http://waterfrontseattle.org/DocumentLibrary/Download/178
Clynick B (2008) Harbour swimming nets: a novel habitat for seahorses. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 18:483–492CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Connell S (2001) Urban structures as marine habitats: an experimental comparison of the composition and abundance of subtidal epibiota among pilings, pontoons and rocky reefs. Marine Environmental Research 52:115–125CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Connell S, Glasby T (1999) Do urban structures influence local abundance and diversity of subtidal epibiota? A case study from Sydney Harbour, Australia. Marine Environmental Research 47(4):373–387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cordell, J. (2011). Seattle Seawall Habitat Enhancement Project. [online] URL: https://sites.google.com/a/uw.edu/seattle-seawall-project/home
Croci S, Butlet A, Georges A, Aguejdad R, Clergeau P (2008) Small urban woodlands as biodiversity conservation hot-spot: a multi-taxon approach. Biomedical and Lifesteam Sciences 23(10):1171–1186Google Scholar
De Groot RS, Wilson MA, Boumans RM (2002) A typology for the classification, description and valuation of ecosystem functions, goods and services. Ecological economics 41(3):393–408CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dean J, Van Dooren K, Weinstein P (2011) Does biodiversity improve mental health in urban settings? Medical Hypotheses 76(6):877–880CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Dearborn DC, Kark S (2010) Motivations for conserving urban biodiversity. Conservation biology 24(2):432–440CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Dexter L (1970) Elite and Specialized Interviewing. Northwestern University Press, EvanstonGoogle Scholar
Deysher L, Dean T, Grove R, Jahn A (2002) Design considerations for an artificial reef to grow giant kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera
) in Southern California. ICES Journal of Marine Science 59:S201–S207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Duffy-Anderson J, Manderson J, Able K (2003) A Characterization of Juvenile Fish Assemblages Around Man-made Structures in the New York-New Jersey Harbor Estuary, U.S.A. Bulletin of Marine Science 72(3):877–889Google Scholar
EBA Engineering Consultants Ltd. (2011). Marine Compensation Habitat Survey Report Vancouver Convention Centre West. Technical Report prepared for B.C. Pavilion Corporation (PAVCO). EBA File: V23201073.
Everard M, Moggridge H (2012) Rediscovering the value of urban rivers. Urban Ecosystems 15:293–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Falace A, Zanelli E, Bressan G (2006) Algal transplantation as a potential tool for artificial reef management and environmental mitigation. Bull Mar Sci 78:161–166
Firth L, Thompson R, White F, Schofield M, Skov M, Hoggart S, Jackson J, Knights A, Hawkins S (2013) The importance of water-retaining features for biodiversity on artificial intertidal coastal defence structures. Diversity and Distributions. doi:10.1111/ddi.12079
Forsyth A (2007) Innovation in urban design: does research help? Journal of Urban Design 12(3):61–473CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Francis R, Lorimer J (2011) Urban Reconciliation ecology: the potential of living roofs and walls. Journal of Environmental Management 92(6):1429–1437CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Gacia E, Paola M, Martin D (2007) Low crested coastal defence structures on the Catalan coast of the Mediterranean Sea: how they compare with natural rocky shores. Scientia Marina 71(2):259–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Glasby T, Connell S (2001) Orientation and position of substrata have large effects on epibiotic assemblages. Marine Ecology Progress Series 214:127–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Glasby T, Connell S, Holloway M, Hewitt C (2007) Nonindigenous biota on artificial structures: could habitat creation facilitate biological invasions? Marine Biology 151:887–895CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Goff, M. (2008). Effect of Habitat Enhancement on Urban Seawall Ecology. Technical report, University of Washington, School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences: Wetland Ecosystem Team.
Goff, M. (2010). Evaluating Habitat Enhancements of an Urban Intertidal Seawall: Ecological Responses and Management Implications. Master Thesis. School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences, University of Washington.
Harris, L. E. (2004). Combined recreational amenities and coastal erosion protection using submerged breakwaters for shoreline stabilization. In National Conference on Beach Preservation Technology. Florida Shore & Beach Preservation Organization (Florida, USA).
Hasegawa, H. and T. Shimizu. (1995). New Concept of Breakwater Structure More Suitable to Fishery Resource Propagation. Pages 412–417 in Proceedings of the International Conference of Ecological System Enhancements Technology for Aquatic Enviroments (Tokyo, Japan).
Holloway M, Connell S (2002) Why do floating structures create novel habitats for subtidal epibiota? Marine Ecology Progress Series 235:43–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hostetler, M. (2012). The Green Leap: A Primer for Conserving Biodiversity in Subdivision Development. University of California Press 197 pp.
Isobe, M. (1998). Toward Integrated Coastal Zone Management in Japan. In ESENA Workshop: Energy-Related Marine Issues in the Sea of Japan, Tokyo, Japan.
Ivesa L, Chapman MG, Underwood AJ, Murphy RJ (2010) Differential patterns of distribution of limpets on intertidal seawalls: experimental investigation of the roles of recruitment, survival, and competition. Marine Ecology Progress Series 407:55–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
James P, Norman D, Clarke J (2010) Avian population dynamics and human induced change in an urban environment 13:499–515. doi:10.1007/s11252-010-0132-9
Johnson, M. (1991). Life on the Edge: Urban Waterfront Edges with Aquatic Habitats. Dissertation. University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Kaplan R (2007) Employees’ reactions to nearby nature at their workplace: The wild and the tame. Landscape and Urban Planning 82:17–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kennish R, Wilson KD, Lo J, Clarke SC, Laister S (2002) Selecting sites for largescale deployment of artificial reefs in Hong Kong: constraint mapping and prioritization techniques. ICES Journal of Marine Science 59:S164–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Klein J, Underwood AJ, Chapman MG (2011) Urban structures provide new insights into interactions among grazers and habitat. Ecological Applications 21:427–438. doi:10.1890/09-1940.1
Knott NA, Underwood AJ, Chapman MG, Glasby TM (2004) Epibiota on vertical and on horizontal surfaces on natural reefs and on artificial structures. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the UK 84(6):1117–1130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kowarik I (2011) Novel urban ecosystems, biodiversity, and conservation. Environmental Pollution 159:1974–1983CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Kozlowski G, Bondallaz L (2013) Urban aquatic ecosystems: Habitat loss and depletion of native macrophyte diversity during the 20th century in four Swiss cities. Urban Ecosystems 16:543–551. doi:10.1007/s11252-012-0284-x
Loukaitou-Sideris A (2012) Addressing the Challenges of Urban Landscapes: Normative Goals for Urban Design. Journal of Urban Design 17(4):467–484CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lukens, R. and C. Selberg, editors. (2004). Guidelines for Marine Artificial Reef Materials (Second ed.). Artificial Reef Subcommittes of the Atlantic and Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commissions.
Lundholm J, Richardson P (2010) Habitat analogues for reconciliation ecology in urban and industrial environments. Journal of Applied Ecology 47:966–975CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Manca, E., I. Cáceres, J.M. Alsina, V. Stratigaki, I. Townend, C.L. Amos. (2012). Wave energy and wave-induced flow reduction by full-scale model Posidonia oceanica seagrass, Continental Shelf Research 50–51:100–116. ISSN 0278–4343, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.csr.2012.10.008
Mapes J, Wolch J (2011) ‘Living Green’: The promise and pitfalls of new sustainable communities. Journal of Urban Design 16(1):105–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Martin L (2010) Reclamation and reconciliation: land-use history, ecosystem services, and the Providence River. Urban Ecosystems 13:243–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McKinney R, Raposa K (2013) Factors influencing expanded use of urban marine habitats by foraging wading birds. Urban Ecosystems 16:411–426CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McKinney R, Raposa K, Kutcher TE (2010) Use of urban marine habitats by foraging wading birds. Urban Ecosystems 13:191–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McLachlan A (1996) Physical factors in benthic ecology: effects of changing sand particle size on beach fauna. Marine ecology progress series Oldendorf 131(1):205–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Megina C, Gonzalez-Duarte M, Lopez-Gonzalez P, Piraino S (2013) Harbours as marine habitats: hydroid assemblages on sea-walls compared with natural habitats. Marine Biology 160(2):371–381CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Meyer E (2008) Sustaining Beauty. Journal of Landscape Architecture 1:6–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Moreira J, Chapman M, Underwood A (2006) Seawalls do not sustain viable populations of limpets. Marine Ecology Progress Series 322:179–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Morrissey J, Iyer-Raniga U, McLaughlin P, Mills A (2012) A strategic project appraisal framework for ecologically sustainable urban infrastructure. Environmental Impact Assessment Review 33(1):55–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Moschella P, Abbiati M, Berg PA, Airoldi L, Anderson J, Bacchiocchi F, Bulleri F, Dinesen G, Frost M, Gacia E, Granhag L, Jonsson P, Satta M, Sundelof A, Thompson R, Hawkins S (2005) Low-creted coastal defence structures as artificial habitats for marine life: Using ecological criteria in design. Coastal Engineering 52:1053–1071CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ng CSL, Chen D, Chou LM (2012) Hard Coral Assemblages on Seawalls in Singapore. Contributions to Marine Science 2012:75–79Google Scholar
Ohgai, M., N. Murase, H. Kakimoto, and M. Noda. (1995). The growth and survival of Sargassum patens on andesite and granite substrata used in the formation of seaweed beds. Pages 470–475 in Proceedings of the International Conference of Ecological System Enhancements Technology for Aquatic Enviroments (Tokyo, Japan).
Ono, K., Simenstad, C., Toft, J., Southard, S., Sobocinski, K., and Borde, A. (2010). Assessing and Mitigating Dock Shading Impacts on the Behavior of Juvenile Pacific Salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.): Can Artificial Light Mitigate the Effects? Washington State Department of Transportation Research Report. WA-RD 755.1.
Perkol-Finkel S, Benayahu Y (2007) Differential recruitment of benthic communities on neighboring artificial and natural reefs. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 340(1):25–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Perkol-Finkel S, Zilman G, Stella I, Miloh T, Benayahu Y (2006) Floating and fixed artificial habitats : effects of substratum motion on benthic communities in a coral reef environment. Marine Ecology 317:9–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Perkol-Finkel S, Zilman G, Sella I, Miloh T, Benayahu Y (2008) Floating and fixed artificial habitats: Spatial and temporal patterns of benthic communities in a coral reef environment. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 77:491–500CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Perkol-Finkel S, Ferrario F, Nicotera V, Airoldi L (2012) Conservation challenges in urban seascapes: promoting the growth of threatened species on coastal infrastructures. Journal of Applied Ecology 49(6):1457–1466. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2664.2012.02204.x
Peterson M, Comyns B, Hendon J, Bond P, Duff G (2000) Habitat use by early life-history stages of fishes and crustaceans along a changing estuarine landscape: difference between natural and altered shoreline sites. Wetlands Ecology and Management 8:209–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pickering H, Whitmarsh D (1997) Artificial reefs and fisheries exploitation: a review of the ‘attraction versus production’ debate, the influence of design and its significance for policy. Fisheries Research 31:39–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pioch S, Saussola P, Kilfoyleb K, Spieler R (2011) Ecological design of marine construction for socio-economic benefits: Ecosystem integration of a pipeline in coral reef area. Procedia Environmental Sciences 9:148–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Riley A (1998) Restoring Streams in Cities: A Guide for Planners and Policymakers, and Citizens
. Island Press, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
Rosenzweig ML (2001) Loss of speciation rate will impoverish future diversity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 98(10):5404CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rosenzweig M (2003) Reconciliation ecology and the future of species diversity. Oryx 37(2):194–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ruckelshaus M, Doney SC, Galindo HM, Barry JP, Chan F, Duffy JE, English CA, Gaines SD, Grebmeier JM, Hollowed AB, Knowlton N, Polovina J, Rabalais NN, Sydeman WJ, Talley LD (2013) Securing ocean benefits for society in the face of climate change. Marine Policy 40:154–159, ISSN 0308-597X, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2013.01.009
Ruiz-Frau A, Hinz H, Edwards-Jones G, Kaiser M (2012) Spatially explicit economic assessment of cultural ecosystem services: Non-extractive recreational uses of the coastal environment related to marine biodiversity. Marine Policy 38:90–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Russell G, Hawkins S, Evans L, Jones H, Holmes G (1983) Restoration of a Disused Dock Basin as a Habitat for Marine Benthos and Fish. Journal of Applied Ecology 20:43–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Salomidi M, Katsanevakis S, Issaris Y, Tsiamis K, Katsiaras N (2013) Anthropogenic disturbance of coastal habitats promotes the spread of the introduced scleractinian coral Oculina patagonica
in the Mediterranean Sea. Biological Invasions 15(9):1961–1971CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sanger DM, Holland FA, Gainey C (2004) Cumulative Impacts of Dock Shading on Spartina alterniflora in South Carolina Estuaries. Environmental Management 33(5):741–748CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Seaman W (2007) Artificial habitats and the restoration of degraded marine ecosystems and fisheries. Hydrobiologia 580:143–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Seastedt TR, Hobbs RJ, Suding KN (2008) Management of novel ecosystems: are novel approaches required?”. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 6(10):547–553CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shafer D, Robinson J (2001) An evaluation of the use of grid platforms to minimize shading impacts to seagrasses, In WRAP Technical Notes Collection. (ERDC TN-WRAP-01-02), U.S. Army Engine Research and Development Center, VicksburgGoogle Scholar
Simkanin C, Davidson I, Dower J, Jamieson G, Therriault T (2012) Anthropogenic structures and the infiltration of natural benthos by invasive ascidians. Marine Ecology 33(4):499–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Slogan, J. (2011). Marine community dynamics on engineered fish compensation habitat in Burrard Inlet, BC. Presentation at the 2011 Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference, Wednesday October 26th, 2011 in Vancouver, Canada. Online: http://www.verney.ca/ssec2011/presentations_d2.php
Somsueb S, Ohno M, Kimura H (2001) Development of seaweed communities on suspended substrata with three slop angles. Journal of Applied Phycology 13:109–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Strayer D, Findlay SEG (2010) Ecology of freshwater shore zones. Aquatic Sciences 72:127–163. doi:10.1007/s00027-010-0128-9
Syvitski JP, Vörösmarty CJ, Kettner AJ, Green P (2005) Impact of humans on the flux of terrestrial sediment to the global coastal ocean. Science 308(5720):376–380CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Takaki, N., H. Kida, and M. Fukuya. (1995). Planning of Fishing Port Facility Considering Ecological Environment. Pages 418–423 in Proceedings of the International Conference of Ecological System Enhancements Technology for Aquatic Environments (Tokyo, Japan).
Tanaka, Y., H. Suzuki, and H. Nakata. (2000). Habitat creation using seawalls: A seawall construction project in Tokyo Bay (Yokosuka Port). In Techno-Ocean 2000. Nippon Foundation.
Terawaki T, Hasegawa H, Arai S, Ohno M (2001) Management-free techniques for restoration of Eisenia and Ecklonia beds along the central Pacific coast. Journal of Applied Phycology 13:13–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Toft, J. and J. Cordell. (2006). Olympic Sculpture Park: Results from Pre-construction Biological Monitoring of Shoreline Habitats. University of Washington: Wetland Ecosystem Team Technical Report SAFS-UW-0601. Prepared for Seattle Public Utilities.
Toft, J., C. Simenstad, J. Cordell, and L. Stamatiou. (2004). Fish Distribution, Abundance, and Behavior at Nearshore Habitats along City of Seattle Marine Shorelines, with an Emphasis on Juvenile Salmonids. University of Washington: Wetland Ecosystem Team Technical Report SAFS-UW-0401. Prepared for Seattle Public Utilities.
Toft, J., J. Cordell, S. Heerhartz, E. Armbrust, A. Ogston, and E. Flemer. (2008). Olympic Sculpture Park: Results from Year 1 Post-construction Monitoring of Shoreline Habitats. University of Washington: School of Aquatic & Fishery Sciences Technical Report SAFS-UW-0801. Prepared for Seattle Public Utilities.
Toft, J., Cordell, J., Heerhartz, S., Armbrust, E., and Simenstad, C. (2010). Fish and invertebrate response to shoreline armoring and restoration in Puget Sound. In Shipman, H., Dethier, M.N., Gelfenbaum, G., Fresh, K.L., and Dinicola, R.S., eds., 2010, Puget Sound Shorelines and the Impacts of Armoring—Proceedings of a State of the Science Workshop, May 2009: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2010–5254, p. 161–170.
Toft, J., A. Ogston, J. Cordell, E. Armbrust, C. Levy, and E. Morgan. (2012). Olympic Sculpture Park: Year 5 Monitoring of Shoreline Enhancements. Technical report, School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences, University of Washington. Prepared for Seattle Public Utilities, City of Seattle. 89 pp.
Toft J, Ogston A, Heerhartz S, Cordell J, Flemer E (2013) Ecological response and physical stability of habitat enhancements along an urban armored shoreline. Ecological Engineering 57:97–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Twu S-W, Liao W-M (1999) Effects of Seawall Slopes on Scour Depth. Journal of Coastal Research 15(4):985–990Google Scholar
Tyrell M, Byers J (2007) Do artificial substrates favor nonindigenous fouling species over native species? Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 342:54–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Van der Ryn S, Cowan S (2007) Ecological Design
. Island Press, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
White, J. (2009). Habitat for Hard Places in the Cuyahoga River. Presented at Conference on Urban Habitat Restoration. [online] URL: http://www.glfc.org/urbanrestore/4_White_Habitat_Hard_Places.pdf
White, J., and Goodman, J. (2008). CRCPO begins installation of fish habitat systems along Cuyahoga River shipping canal. River News. [online] URL: http://www.cuyahogariverrap.org/Rivernews/Rivernews07-20-08.pdf
Williams J, Dellapenna T, Lee G (2013) Shifts in depositional environments as a natural response to anthropogenic alterations: Nakdong Estuary, South Korea. Marine Geology 343:47–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wood PJ, Armitage PD (1997) Biological effects of fine sediment in the lotic environment. Environmental management 21(2):203–217CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Yano, K., S. Akeda, Y. Miyamoto, and A. Nagano. (1995). Toward Ports and Harbors That Coexist with Nature. Pages 400–425 in Proceedings of the International Conference of Ecological System Enhancements Technology for Aquatic Environments (Tokyo, Japan).
Yokouchi H, Yamamoto R, Ishizaki Y (1991) Construction of Artificial Seaweeds Beds Accompanied with the Reclamation of Unit No. 3 of Ikata Power Station. Marine Pollution Bulletin 23:719–722CrossRefGoogle Scholar