Instructional Science

, Volume 38, Issue 3, pp 289–307

The expertise reversal effect and worked examples in tutored problem solving

Authors

    • Human–Computer Interaction InstituteCarnegie Mellon University
  • Vincent Aleven
    • Human–Computer Interaction InstituteCarnegie Mellon University
  • Rolf Schwonke
    • Psychological Institute Educational and Developmental PsychologyUniversity of Freiburg
  • Alexander Renkl
    • Psychological Institute Educational and Developmental PsychologyUniversity of Freiburg
Article

DOI: 10.1007/s11251-009-9107-8

Cite this article as:
Salden, R.J.C.M., Aleven, V., Schwonke, R. et al. Instr Sci (2010) 38: 289. doi:10.1007/s11251-009-9107-8

Abstract

Prior research has shown that tutored problem solving with intelligent software tutors is an effective instructional method, and that worked examples are an effective complement to this kind of tutored problem solving. The work on the expertise reversal effect suggests that it is desirable to tailor the fading of worked examples to individual students’ growing expertise levels. One lab and one classroom experiment were conducted to investigate whether adaptively fading worked examples in a tutored problem-solving environment can lead to higher learning gains. Both studies compared a standard Cognitive Tutor with two example-enhanced versions, in which the fading of worked examples occurred either in a fixed manner or in a manner adaptive to individual students’ understanding of the examples. Both experiments provide evidence of improved learning results from adaptive fading over fixed fading over problem solving. We discuss how to further optimize the fading procedure matching each individual student’s changing knowledge level.

Keywords

Cognitive tutorWorked examplesAdaptive fadingExpertise reversal effect

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009