Supporting learning with interactive multimedia through active integration of representations Article Received: 19 March 2004 Accepted: 15 December 2004 DOI:
Cite this article as: Bodemer, D., Ploetzner, R., Bruchmüller, K. et al. Instr Sci (2005) 33: 73. doi:10.1007/s11251-004-7685-z Abstract
When learners explore dynamic and interactive visualisations they are often not able to interact with them in a systematic and goal-oriented way. Frequently, even supporting learners in processes of discovery learning does not lead to better learning outcomes. This can be due to missing pre-requisite knowledge such as the coherent mental integration of the pictorial and symbolic sources of information. In order to support learners in this process, we encouraged them to interactively and externally relate different static sources of information to each other before exploring dynamic and interactive visualisations. We evaluated the benefit of this instructional support in two experimental studies concerning the domains of statistics and mechanics. It revealed that the active integration of static representations before processing dynamic visualisations resulted in better performance and can provide a basis for a more systematic and goal-oriented experimentation behaviour during simulation-based discovery learning.
Keywords cognitive load coherence formation discovery learning dynamic visualisations interactive learning environments multiple representations simulations structure mapping
in final form: 16 November 2004
References Ainsworth, S. 1999 The functions of multiple representations Computers and Education 33 131 152 Google Scholar Ainsworth, S., Bibby, P.A., Wood, D.J. 2002 Examining the effects of different multiple representational systems in learning primary mathematics Journal of the Learning Sciences 11 25 62 Google Scholar Ainsworth, S., Labeke, N. 2004 Multiple forms of dynamic representation Learning and Instruction 14 241 255 Google Scholar Blaschke, K., Heuer, D. 2000 Dynamik-Lernen mit multimedial-experimentell unterstütztem Werkstatt-Unterricht [Learning dynamics in multimedia projects] Physik in der Schule 38 1 6 Google Scholar Bodemer, D., Ploetzner, R., Feuerlein, I., Spada, H. 2004 The active integration of information during learning with dynamic and interactive visualizations Learning and Instruction 14 325 341 Google Scholar Brünken, R., Steinbacher, S., Schnotz, W., Leutner, D. 2001 Mentale Modelle und Effekte der Präsentations- und Abrufkodalität beim Lernen mit Multimedia [Mental models and the effects of presentation and retrieval mode in multimedia learning] Zeitschrift für Pädagogische Psychologie 15 15 27 Google Scholar Chandler, P., Sweller, J. 1991 Cognitive load theory and the format of instruction Cognition and Instruction 8 293 332 Google Scholar Chandler, P., Sweller, J. 1992 The split-attention effect as a factor in the design of instruction British Journal of Educational Psychology 62 233 246 Google Scholar Jong, T., Joolingen, W.R. 1998 Scientific discovery learning with computer simulations of conceptual domains Review of Educational Research 68 179 201 Google Scholar Gentner, D. 1983 Structure-mapping: A theoretical framework for analogy Cognitive Science 7 155 170 Google Scholar Gentner, D., Markman, A.B. 1997 Structure mapping in analogy and similarity American Psychologist 52 45 56 Google Scholar Kalyuga, S., Chandler, P., Sweller, J. 1999 Managing split-attention and redundancy in multimedia instruction Applied Cognitive Psychology 13 351 371 Google Scholar Klahr, D., Dunbar, K. 1988 Dual space search during scientific reasoning Cognitive Science 12 1 48 Google Scholar Kozma, R. 2003 The material features of multiple representations and their cognitive and social affordances for science understanding Learning and Instruction 13 205 226 Google Scholar Kozma, R.B., Russell, J., Jones, T., Marx, N., Davis, J. 1996 The use of multiple linked representations to facilitate science understanding Vosniadou, S. Corte, E. Glaser, R. Mandl, H. eds. International Perspectives on the Design of Technology Supported Learning Environments Erlbaum Hillsdale, NJ 41 61 Google Scholar Larkin, J.H., Simon, H.A. 1987 Why a diagram is (sometimes) worth ten thousands words Cognitive Science 11 65 99 Google Scholar Leutner, D. 1993 Guided discovery learning with computer-based simulation games: effects of adaptive and non-adaptive instructional support Learning and Instruction 3 113 132 Google Scholar Lowe, R.K. 1999 Extracting information from an animation during complex visual learning European Journal of Psychology of Education 14 225 244 Google Scholar Lowe, R.K. 2003 Animation and learning: Selective processing of information in dynamic graphics Learning and Instruction 13 157 176 Google Scholar Mayer, R.E. 1997 Multimedia learning: Are we asking the right questions Educational Psychologist 32 1 19 Google Scholar Mayer, R.E. 2001Multimedia Learning Cambridge University Press NY Google Scholar Njoo, M., Jong, T. 1993 Supporting exploratory learning by offering structured overviews of hypotheses Towne, D.M. Jong, T. Spada, H. eds. Simulation-based Experiential Learning Springer Publishers Berlin 207 223 Google Scholar Ploetzner, R., Bodemer, D., Feuerlein, I. 2001 Facilitating the mental integration of multiple sources of information in multimedia learning environments Montgomerie, C. Viteli, J. eds. Proceedings of the World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia & Telecommunications Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education Norfolk, VA 1501 1506 Google Scholar
Ploetzner, R., Bodemer,D. & Neudert, S. (in press) Successful and unsuccessful use of dynamic visualisations in instructional texts. In R.K. Lowe & W. Schnotz, eds,
Learning with Animations. New York: Cambridge University Press. Reigeluth, C.M., Schwartz, E. 1989 An instructional theory for the design of computer-based simulations Journal of Computer-Based Instruction 16 1 10 Google Scholar Reimann, P. 1991 Detecting functional relations in a computerized discovery environment Learning and Instruction 1 45 65 Google Scholar Rieber, L.P., Tzeng, S.-C., Tribble, K. 2004 Discovery learning, representation, and explanation within a computer-based simulation: Finding the right mix Learning and Instruction 14 307 323 Google Scholar Schauble, L., Glaser, R., Raghavan, K., Reiner, M. 1991 Causal models and experimentation strategies in scientific reasoning The Journal of the Learning Sciences 1 201 239 Google Scholar Schnotz, W., Bannert, M. 1999 Einflüsse der Visualisierungsform auf die Konstruktion mentaler Modelle beim Text- und Bildverstehen [Influence of the type of visualization on the construction of mental models during picture and text comprehension] Zeitschrift für Experimentelle Psychologie 46 217 236 Google Scholar Schnotz, W., Bannert, M. 2003 Construction and interference in learning from multiple representation Learning and Instruction 13 141 156 Google Scholar Schnotz, W., Boeckheler, J., Grzondziel, H. 1999 Individual and co-operative learning with interactive animated pictures European Journal of Psychology of Education 14 245 265 Google Scholar Seufert, T. 2003 Supporting coherence formation in learning from multiple representations Learning and Instruction 13 227 237 Google Scholar Swaak, J., Joolingen, W.R., Jong, T. 1998 Supporting simulation-based learning: The effects of model progression and assignments on definitional and intuitive knowledge Learning and Instruction 8 235 252 Google Scholar Sweller, J. 1988 Cognitive load during problem solving: Effects on learning Cognitive Science 12 257 285 Google Scholar Sweller, J., Merriënboer, J.J.G., Paas, F.G.W.C. 1998 Cognitive architecture and instructional design Educational Psychology Review 10 251 296 Google Scholar Tarmizi, R.A., Sweller, J. 1988 Guidance during mathematical problem solving Journal of Educational Psychology 80 424 436 Google Scholar Joolingen, W.R., Jong, T. 1991 Supporting hypothesis generation by learners exploring an interactive computer simulation Instructional Science 20 389 404 Google Scholar Joolingen, W.R., Jong, T. 1997 An extended dual search space model of scientific discovery learning Instructional Science 25 307 346 Google Scholar