Tropical Animal Health and Production

, Volume 45, Issue 1, pp 35-43

First online:

Effectiveness of vaccines and vaccination programs for the control of foot-and-mouth disease in Uganda, 2001–2010

  • Michael MulemeAffiliated withVeterinary and Microbiological Sciences Department, North Dakota State UniversityCollege of Veterinary Medicine, Animal Resources and Biosecurity, Makerere University Email author 
  • , Robert BarigyeAffiliated withVeterinary and Microbiological Sciences Department, North Dakota State University
  • , Margaret L. KhaitsaAffiliated withVeterinary and Microbiological Sciences Department, North Dakota State University
  • , Eugene BerryAffiliated withVeterinary and Microbiological Sciences Department, North Dakota State University
  • , Anthony W. WamonoAffiliated withEnvironment and Conservation Science Program, North Dakota State University
  • , Chrisostom AyebazibweAffiliated withNational Animal Disease Diagnostics and Epidemiology Center, Ministry of Agriculture, Animal Industry and Fisheries

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Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals. In Uganda, FMD outbreaks are mainly controlled by ring vaccination and restriction of animal movements. Vaccination stimulates immunity and prevents animals from developing clinical signs which include lameness, inappetence, and decreased production. Ring vaccination and restriction of animal movements have, however, not successfully controlled FMD in Uganda and outbreaks reoccur annually. The objective of this study was to review the use of FMD virus (FMDV) vaccines and assess the effectiveness of vaccination programs for controlling FMD in Uganda (2001–2010), using retrospective data. FMD vaccine distribution patterns in Uganda (2001–2010) matched occurrence of outbreaks with districts reporting the highest number of outbreaks also receiving the largest quantity of vaccines. This was possibly due to “fire brigade” response of vaccinating animals after outbreaks have been reported. On average, only 10.3 % of cattle within districts that reported outbreaks during the study period were vaccinated. The average minimum time between onset of outbreaks and vaccination was 7.5 weeks, while the annual cost of FMDV vaccines used ranged from US $58,000 to 1,088,820. Between 2001 and 2010, serotyping of FMD virus was done in only 9/121 FMD outbreaks, and there is no evidence that vaccine matching or vaccine potency tests have been done in Uganda. The probability of FMDV vaccine and outbreak mismatch, the delayed response to outbreaks through vaccination, and the high costs associated with importation of FMDV vaccines could be reduced if virus serotyping and subtyping as well as vaccine matching were regularly done, and the results were considered for vaccine manufacture.


FMD Serotypes Multivalent vaccines Vaccination