Tropical Animal Health and Production

, Volume 44, Issue 1, pp 35–42

Effect of carbohydrate sources and cotton seed meal in the concentrate: II. Feed intake, nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation and microbial protein synthesis in beef cattle

  • Metha Wanapat
  • Suban Foiklang
  • Peter Rowlinson
  • Ruangyote Pilajun
Original Research

DOI: 10.1007/s11250-011-0014-z

Cite this article as:
Wanapat, M., Foiklang, S., Rowlinson, P. et al. Trop Anim Health Prod (2012) 44: 35. doi:10.1007/s11250-011-0014-z


Four, rumen fistulated crossbred (Brahman × native) beef cattle steers were randomly assigned to receive four dietary treatments according to a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Factor A was carbohydrate source; cassava chip (CC) or CC + rice bran at a ratio 3:1 (CR3:1) and Factor B was cotton seed meal level (CM); and 109 g CP/kg (LCM) and 328 g CP/kg (HCM) at similar overall CP levels (490 g CP/kg). The animals were fed 5 g concentrate/kg BW, and urea-treated rice straw (UTS) (50 g urea/kg DM) was fed ad libitum. Carbohydrate source did not affect feed intake, nutrient digestibility, blood urea nitrogen, rumen fermentation, or microbial protein synthesis; however, animals fed with CC had a higher population of total viable bacteria than the CR3:1 treatment (P < 0.05). Animals that received HCM had a lower total feed intake while ruminal pH was higher than the LCM fed treatment (P < 0.05). The population of total viable and cellulolytic bacteria in animals that received HCM were lower than the LCM fed treatment (P < 0.05). Moreover, use of HCM in beef cattle diets resulted in lower microbial protein synthesis when compared with the LCM fed treatment (P < 0.05) although efficiency of microbial protein synthesis was nonsignificantly different among treatments. Therefore, cassava chip combined with rice bran can be used in a concentrate diet for beef cattle. It is also noted that a high level of cotton seed meal in the concentrate may impact rumen fermentation and animal performance.


Cassava chip Cotton seed meal Rumen fermentation Nutrient digestibility Microbial population Beef cattle 



Cassava chip


Cassava chip + rice bran 3:1


Low cotton seed meal


High cotton seed meal


Energy sources


Cotton seed meal levels


Colony forming unit


Digestible organic matter in the rumen


Urea-treated rice straw


Neutral detergent fiber


Acid detergent fiber


Blood urea nitrogen

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Metha Wanapat
    • 1
  • Suban Foiklang
    • 1
  • Peter Rowlinson
    • 2
  • Ruangyote Pilajun
    • 1
  1. 1.Tropical Feed Resources Research and Development Center (TROFREC), Department of Animal Science, Faculty of AgricultureKhon Kaen UniversityKhon KaenThailand
  2. 2.School of Agriculture, Food and Rural Development Agriculture BuildingNewcastle UniversityNewcastle upon TyneUK

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