Tropical Animal Health and Production

, Volume 37, Issue 6, pp 513–525

A Cross-sectional Study of Reproductive Performance of Smallholder Dairy Cows in Coastal Tanzania

  • E. S. Swai
  • M. J. Bryant
  • E. D. Karimuribo
  • N. P. French
  • N. H. Ogden
  • J. L. Fitzpatrick
  • D. M. Kambarage

DOI: 10.1007/s11250-005-1218-x

Cite this article as:
Swai, E.S., Bryant, M.J., Karimuribo, E.D. et al. Trop Anim Health Prod (2005) 37: 513. doi:10.1007/s11250-005-1218-x


A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted on 200 randomly selected smallholder farms from a mixed dairy farming system in Tanga, Tanzania, between January and April 1999. We estimated the frequency and determinants of long calving interval (LCI), retention of fetal membrane (RFM), dystocia, and abortion in smallholder crossbred cattle and explored birth trends. The mean calving interval was 500 days and birth rate was 65 per 100 cow-years. Dystocia was reported to affect 58% of calvings, and 17.2% of animals suffered RFM. Using mixed effect models, the variables associated with LCI, RFM and dystocia were breed, level of exotic blood and condition score. Zebu breeding was associated with LCI (odds ratio (OR) = 2.3, p = 0.041) and Friesian breeding with lower odds for RF (OR = 0.26, p = 0.020). Animals with higher levels of exotic blood had lower odds for evidence of dystocia (OR = 0.45, p =0.021). Evidence of dystocia was significantly associated with poor condition score (P = −1.10, p = 0.001). Our observations suggest that LCIs are common in smallholder dairy farms in this region and a likely source of economic loss. Dystocia, RFM, poor condition score and mineral deficiency were common problems and were possibly linked to LCI.


dairy cowsreproduction performancesmallholdersTanzania





agroecological zone


birth rate




long calving interval


odds ratio


retention of fetal membrane


Tanga Dairy Development Programme

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, Inc. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. S. Swai
    • 1
  • M. J. Bryant
    • 2
  • E. D. Karimuribo
    • 3
  • N. P. French
    • 4
  • N. H. Ogden
    • 5
  • J. L. Fitzpatrick
    • 6
  • D. M. Kambarage
    • 3
  1. 1.Veterinary Investigation CentreArushaTanzania
  2. 2.Department of AgricultureUniversity of ReadingReadingUK
  3. 3.Department of Veterinary Medicine and Public HealthSokoine University of AgricultureMorogoroTanzania
  4. 4.Department of Veterinary Clinical Science and Animal HusbandryUniversity of LiverpoolUK
  5. 5.Groupe de Recherche en Épidémiologie des Zoonoses et Santé Publique, Département de Pathologie et MicrobiologieUniversité de MontréalCanada
  6. 6.Moredun Research InstituteEdinburghUK