Transgenic rice grains expressing a heterologous ρ-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase shift tocopherol synthesis from the γ to the α isoform without increasing absolute tocopherol levels
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- Farré, G., Sudhakar, D., Naqvi, S. et al. Transgenic Res (2012) 21: 1093. doi:10.1007/s11248-012-9601-7
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We generated transgenic rice plants overexpressing Arabidopsis thaliana ρ-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD), which catalyzes the first committed step in vitamin E biosynthesis. Transgenic grains accumulated marginally higher levels of total tocochromanols than controls, reflecting a small increase in absolute tocotrienol synthesis (but no change in the relative abundance of the α and γ isoforms). In contrast, there was no change in the absolute tocopherol level, but a significant shift from the γ to the α isoform. These data confirm HPPD is not rate limiting, and that increasing flux through the early pathway reveals downstream bottlenecks that act as metabolic tipping points.