Minh, D.P., Besson, M., Pinel, C. et al. Top Catal (2010) 53: 1270. doi:10.1007/s11244-010-9580-y
The effect of addition of Re to activated carbon-supported Ru and Pd catalysts in the hydrogenation of 15 wt% succinic acid aqueous solutions to 1,4-butanediol (BDO) was examined. The yield and selectivity were in the range 62–66% at 160 °C and 150 bar over the Re promoted catalysts. Bio-succinic acid from a fermentation process could be efficiently hydrogenated on 4 wt%Re–2 wt%Pd/C without significant loss of selectivity.