Assigning realtime tasks on heterogeneous multiprocessors with two unrelated types of processors
 Gurulingesh Raravi,
 Björn Andersson,
 Konstantinos Bletsas
 … show all 3 hide
Rent the article at a discount
Rent now* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.
Get AccessAbstract
Consider the problem of partitioned scheduling of an implicitdeadline sporadic task set on heterogeneous multiprocessors to meet all deadlines. Each processor is either of type1 or type2. We present a new algorithm, FF3C, for this problem. FF3C offers low timecomplexity and provably good performance. Specifically, FF3C offers (i) a timecomplexity of O(n⋅max(m,logn)+m⋅logm), where n is the number of tasks and m is the number of processors and (ii) the guarantee that if a task set can be scheduled by an optimal partitionedscheduling algorithm to meet all deadlines then FF3C meets all deadlines as well if given processors at most \(\frac{1}{1\alpha}\) times as fast (referred to as speed competitive ratio) and tasks are scheduled using EDF; where α is a property of the task set. The parameter α is in the range (0,0.5] and for each task, it holds that its utilization is no greater than α or greater than 1−α on each processor type. Thus, the speed competitive ratio of FF3C can never exceed 2.
We also present several extensions to FF3C; these offer the same performance guarantee and timecomplexity but with improved averagecase performance. Via simulations, we compare the performance of our new algorithms and two stateoftheart algorithms (and variations of the latter). We evaluate algorithms based on (i) running time and (ii) the necessary multiplication factor, i.e., the amount of extra speed of processors that the algorithm needs, for a given task set, so as to succeed, compared to an optimal task assignment algorithm. Overall, we observed that our new algorithms perform significantly better than the stateoftheart. We also observed that our algorithms perform much better in practice, i.e., the necessary multiplication factor of the algorithms is much smaller than their speed competitive ratio. Finally, we also present a clustered version of the new algorithm.
 AMD Inc (2010) AMD fusion family of APUs: Enabling a superior, immersive PC experience. http://www.amd.com/us/Documents/48423_fusion_whitepaper_WEB.pdf
 AMD Inc (2011a) AMD embedded Gseries platform. http://www.amd.com/us/products/embedded/processors/Pages/gseries.aspx
 AMD Inc (2011b) The AMD fusion family of APUs. http://sites.amd.com/us/fusion/apu/Pages/fusion.aspx
 Andersson B, Bletsas K (2008) Sporadic multiprocessor scheduling with few preemptions. In: 20th Euromicro conference on realtime systems, pp 243–252 CrossRef
 Anderson J, Srinivasan A (2000) Earlyrelease fair scheduling. In: Proceedings of the 12th Euromicro conference on realtime systems, pp 35–43
 Andersson B, Tovar E (2007a) Competitive analysis of partitioned scheduling on uniform multiprocessors. In: Proceedings of the 15th international workshop on parallel and distributed realtime systems, pp 1–8
 Andersson B, Tovar E (2007b) Competitive analysis of staticpriority of partitioned scheduling on uniform multiprocessors. In: Proceedings of the 13th IEEE international conference on embedded and realtime computing systems and applications, pp 111–119
 Andersson B, Baruah S, Jonsson J (2001) Staticpriority scheduling on multiprocessors. In: Proceedings of the 22nd IEEE realtime systems symposium, pp 193–202
 Andersson B, Raravi G, Bletsas K (2010) Assigning realtime tasks on heterogeneous multiprocessors with two unrelated types of processors. In: Proceedings of the 31st IEEE international realtime systems symposium, pp 239–248 CrossRef
 Baruah S (2004a) Feasibility analysis of preemptive realtime systems upon heterogeneous multiprocessor platforms. In: Proceedings of the 25th IEEE international realtime systems symposium, pp 37–46 CrossRef
 Baruah S (2004b) Partitioning realtime tasks among heterogeneous multiprocessors. In: Proc of the 33rd international conference on parallel processing, pp 467–474
 Baruah S (2004c) Task partitioning upon heterogeneous multiprocessor platforms. In: Proceedings of the 10th IEEE international realtime and embedded technology and applications symposium, pp 536–543
 Coffman EG, Garey MR, Johnson DS (1997) Approximation algorithms for bin packing: a survey. In: Approximation algorithms for NPhard problems. PWS, Boston, pp 46–93
 Cormen TH, Leiserson CE, Rivest RL, Stein C (2001) Introduction to algorithms, 2nd edn. McGrawHill, New York
 Dertouzos M (1974) Control robotics: The procedural control of physical processes. In: Proceedings of IFIP congress (IFIP’74), pp 807–813
 Freescale Semiconductor (2007) i.MX applications processors. http://www.freescale.com/webapp/sps/site/homepage.jsp?code=IMX_HOME
 Garey MR, Johnson DS (1979) Computers and intractability: A guide to the theory of NPcompleteness. Freeman, New York
 Geer D (2005) Taking the graphics processor beyond graphics. IEEE Comput 38(9):14–16 CrossRef
 Grandpierre T, Lavarenne C, Sorel Y (1999) Optimized rapid prototyping for realtime embedded heterogeneous multiprocessors. In: Proceedings of the 7th international workshop on hardware/software codesign, pp 74–78 CrossRef
 Gschwind M, Hofstee HP, Flachs B, Hopkins M, Watanabe Y, Yamazaki T (2006) Synergistic processing in cell’s multicore architecture. IEEE MICRO 26(2):10–24 CrossRef
 Hochbaum D, Shmoys D (1986) A polynomial approximation scheme for machine scheduling on uniform processors: using the dual approximation approach. In: Proc of the sixth conference on foundations of software technology and theoretical computer science, pp 382–393 CrossRef
 Horowitz E, Sahni S (1976) Exact and approximate algorithms for scheduling nonidentical processors. J ACM 23:317–327 CrossRef
 IBM Inc (2005) The cell project at IBM research. http://www.research.ibm.com/cell/
 IBM Inc (2011) IBM ILOG CPLEX optimizer. http://www01.ibm.com/software/integration/optimization/cplexoptimizer/
 IEEE Spectrum (2011) With Denver project NVIDIA and ARM join CPUGPU integration race. http://spectrum.ieee.org/techtalk/semiconductors/processors/withdenverprojectnvidiaandarmjoincpugpuintegrationrace
 Intel Corporation (2011) The 2nd generation Intel Core processor family. http://www.intel.com/en_IN/consumer/products/processors/corefamily.htm
 Lenstra J, Shmoys D, Tardos E (1990) Approximation algorithms for scheduling unrelated parallel machines. Math Program 46:259–271 CrossRef
 Levin G, Funk S, Sadowskin C, Pye I, Brandt S (2010) DPFAIR: A simple model for understanding optimal multiprocessor scheduling. In: Proceedings of the 22nd Euromicro conference on realtime systems, pp 3–13 CrossRef
 Liu C, Layland J (1973) Scheduling algorithms for multiprogramming in a hard realtime environment. J ACM 20:46–61 CrossRef
 López M, Díaz J, García D (2004) Utilization bounds for EDF scheduling on realtime multiprocessor systems. RealTime Syst 28:39–68 CrossRef
 Maeda S, Asano S, Shimada T, Awazu K, Tago H (2005) A realtime software platform for the Cell processor. IEEE MICRO 25(5):20–29 CrossRef
 NVIDIA (2011) Tegra 2 and Tegra 3 super processors. http://www.nvidia.com/object/tegrasuperchip.html
 Potts C (1985) Analysis of a linear programming heuristic for scheduling unrelated parallel machines. Discrete Appl Math 10:155–164 CrossRef
 Qi X, Zhu D, Aydin H (2010) A study of utilization bound and runtime overhead for cluster scheduling in multiprocessor realtime systems. In: Proceedings of the 16th IEEE international conference on embedded and realtime computing systems and applications, pp 3–12
 Texas Instruments (2011) OMAP application processors: OMAP 5 platform. http://www.ti.com/ww/en/omap/omap5/omap5platform.html
 Wiese A, Bonifaci V, Baruah S (2012) Partitioned EDF scheduling on a few types of unrelated multiprocessors. Tech rep. Available at http://www.cs.unc.edu/~baruah/Submitted/2012kunrelated.pdf
 Title
 Assigning realtime tasks on heterogeneous multiprocessors with two unrelated types of processors
 Journal

RealTime Systems
Volume 49, Issue 1 , pp 2972
 Cover Date
 20130101
 DOI
 10.1007/s1124101291611
 Print ISSN
 09226443
 Online ISSN
 15731383
 Publisher
 Springer US
 Additional Links
 Topics
 Keywords

 Bin packing
 Heterogeneous multiprocessors
 Realtime scheduling
 Industry Sectors
 Authors

 Gurulingesh Raravi ^{(1)}
 Björn Andersson ^{(2)}
 Konstantinos Bletsas ^{(1)}
 Author Affiliations

 1. CISTER/INESCTEC, ISEP, Polytechnic Institute of Porto, Porto, Portugal
 2. Software Engineering Institute, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, USA