Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis

, Volume 35, Issue 2, pp 234–242

Venous thromboembolism in Pakistan:a neglected research agenda

Article

DOI: 10.1007/s11239-012-0799-2

Cite this article as:
Khan, A.A. & Zafar, S.N. J Thromb Thrombolysis (2013) 35: 234. doi:10.1007/s11239-012-0799-2
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Abstract

Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is an important cause of in-hospital mortality. A local understanding of disease burden, occurrence, etiology and successful preventive and therapeutic interventions is of vital import. We aimed to review the current literature of VTE originating from Pakistan to determine gaps in knowledge in order to prioritize future research. An electronic search was performed using Pakmedinet, Pubmed and Google Scholar to retrieve research articles on thrombosis, deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary thromboembolism in Pakistan. The search included all years and no limits were applied. All original research articles presenting primary data from Pakistan were selected. Full texts were reviewed and information synthesized and summarized in our review. Eighty-one studies were found, out of which we were able to retrieve and review 77 (95 %) full texts. A total of 6,501 patients are included in this review. Among the studies, we found 25 case reports/series, 1 case–control, 3 cohort, 20 cross-sectional, 1 quasi-experimental, 2 randomized controlled trials, 4 retrospective file reviews and 21 review articles. Most of these were small studies with only eight having a patient population above 100. Six studies presented incidence of DVT which ranged from 2.6 to 12.82 % depending on the population under study. Two articles studied risk factors for DVT. Six looked at different treatment modalities, often comparing one modality to the other, while another 15 articles assessed diagnostic strategies. Preventive aspects of VTE were addressed by only three studies and all found the rates of thrombo-prophylaxis grossly inadequate. There is a dearth of quality research on venous thromboembolism in Pakistan. We describe key areas of neglect and recommend prioritizing research on epidemiological and preventive aspects.

Keywords

Deep vein thrombosis Venous thromboembolism Prophylaxis Pakistan 

Abbreviations

DVT

Deep vein thrombosis

PE

Pulmonary embolism

VTE

Venous thromboembolism

CI

Confidence interval

AED

Anti-epileptic drug

EEG

Electroencephalography

MeSH

Medical subject heading

IVC

Inferior vena cava

MRI

Magnetic resonance imaging

Ct

Computed tomography

LMWH

Light molecular weight heparin

UFH

Ultra-filtrated heparin

CVT

Cerebral venous thrombosis

RCT

Randomized controlled trial

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Medical CollegeAga Khan UniversityKarachiPakistan
  2. 2.Department of SurgeryAga Khan UniversityKarachiPakistan

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