Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis

, Volume 29, Issue 4, pp 489–496

The role of ethnicity, age and gender in venous thromboembolism

Authors

  • Martina Montagnana
    • Sezione di Chimica Clinica, Dipartimento di Scienze Morfologico-BiomedicheUniversità di Verona
  • Emmanuel J. Favaloro
    • Department of HaematologyInstitute of Clinical Pathology and Medical Research (ICPMR), Westmead Hospital
  • Massimo Franchini
    • Servizio di Immunoematologia e Trasfusione–Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Verona
  • Gian Cesare Guidi
    • Sezione di Chimica Clinica, Dipartimento di Scienze Morfologico-BiomedicheUniversità di Verona
    • Sezione di Chimica Clinica, Dipartimento di Scienze Morfologico-BiomedicheUniversità di Verona
Article

DOI: 10.1007/s11239-009-0365-8

Cite this article as:
Montagnana, M., Favaloro, E.J., Franchini, M. et al. J Thromb Thrombolysis (2010) 29: 489. doi:10.1007/s11239-009-0365-8

Abstract

Venous thromboembolism, including both deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, is the leading cause of preventable in-hospital mortality. In the inexorable progress towards individualization of risk and personalized medicine, several congenital and acquired risk factors have been identified. However, the influence of some demographical variables, especially ethnicity, age and gender, has largely been under appreciated. Although the incidence of venous thromboembolism varies widely among diverse racial/ethnic cohorts, it appears globally highest in Blacks, is intermediate in Caucasians and is lowest in Asians. The incidence and prevalence of venous thromboembolism is also strongly age-related, increasing nearly 90 fold from <15 to >80 years old. Definitive data on the relative frequency of venous thromboembolism across genders is lacking. Some studies report that gender is not an independent risk factor of venous thromboembolism, while others conclude that female gender might be a protective variable. The purpose of this review is to assess the relationship between such demographic variables and venous thromboembolism.

Keywords

ThrombosisVenous thromboembolismAgeGenderEthnicity

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009