, Volume 25, Issue 2, pp 179-184
Date: 06 Jun 2007

The immediate effect of aerobic exercise on haemostatic parameters in patients with recently diagnosed mild to moderate essential hypertension

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Abstract

Background

Exercise is frequently recommended for the treatment of patients with arterial hypertension. Previous studies have shown an enhanced coagulation state after exercise. Our study investigates the alterations observed after a single session of submaximal aerobic exercise concerning coagulation, fibrinolysis, platelet activation as well as endothelial function in patients with recently diagnosed essential hypertension.

Methods

Twenty non-diabetic patients with recently diagnosed essential hypertension participated in a 45 min submaximal exercise test on a bicycle ergometer. Blood samples were drawn before and after exercise in order to determine parameters of coagulation activation (Prothrombin time [PT], activated Partial Thromboplastin time [aPTT], fibrinogen, D-Dimers, prothrombin fragments 1 + 2 [PF1+2], thrombin-antithrombin III complex [TAT] and factors VII, VIII and XII), platelet activation (Platelet count, Platelet factor 4 [PF4] and β-thromboglobulin [β-TG]), fibrinolysis activation (Plasmin-a2 antiplasmin complex, PAP) and endothelial function (soluble Thrombomodulin [sTM] and von Willebrand factor [vWf]). Soluble P-selectin served as a marker for endothelial and platelet activation.

Results

All patients completed the exercise test. aPTT (P < 0.001) and factor VII (P = 0.01) significantly decreased while PT (P = 0.04), fibrinogen (P = 0.008), factor VIII (P < 0.001), platelet count (P = 0.002) and β-TG levels (P = 0.01) significantly increased as a result of exercise. Compared to baseline there was an 11% increase in TAT (P = 0.04) and a 28% increase in PAP (P < 0.001) at peak exercise. One hour post exercise, there was a 43% increase in PAP whereas TAT levels became similar to those at baseline. Additionally vWf (P = 0.01) and sP-selectin (P = 0.02) levels significantly increased throughout the exercise protocol.

Conclusions

Patients with recently diagnosed and never treated mild to moderate essential hypertension undergoing submaximal aerobic exercise present evidence of enhanced fibrinolysis compared with a mild increase of coagulation indices. However, whether there is a favourable effect of exercise on fibrinolysis over coagulation and/or endothelial involvement during exercise needs to be further investigated.