, Volume 191, Issue 8, pp 1857-1866

First online:

Iffy predictions and proper expectations

  • Matthew A. BentonAffiliated withUniversity of Oxford Email author 
  • , John TurriAffiliated withUniversity of Waterloo

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What individuates the speech act of prediction? The standard view is that prediction is individuated by the fact that it is the unique speech act that requires future-directed content. We argue against this view and two successor views. We then lay out several other potential strategies for individuating prediction, including the sort of view we favor. We suggest that prediction is individuated normatively and has a special connection to the epistemic standards of expectation. In the process, we advocate some constraints that we think a good theory of prediction should respect.


Prediction Assertion Speech acts Epistemic norms Constitutive norms