Parental expectations and school relationships as contributors to adolescents’ positive outcomes
Purchase on Springer.com
$39.95 / €34.95 / £29.95*
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.
Researchers examined associations of parental expectations and parental school relationships with school outcomes among U.S. middle and high school students. Nationally representative data involving families from the National Household Education Surveys were analyzed with structural equation modeling. Measures included interview responses about parent expectations for their children’s long term educational attainment (ranging from dropping out of high school to obtaining a JD/PhD/MD) and how much parents feel welcomed at school, trust and have positive interactions with educators. The latter three variables formed a latent variable called parent school relationship. Analyses controlled for SES (parents’ educational attainment and household income), family structure, gender, and ethnicity. The school outcomes variable was derived from parental report of students’ grades, retention in any grade and behavior problems at school. Parental expectations were positively related (standardized path coefficient = .44, $p<.01$ ) to positive school outcomes and had a stronger effect than SES (standardized path coefficient = .24). Parent school relationships were also positively related to school outcomes. These findings suggest that psychologists and educators should be aware of the potential for parents to play a significant role (e.g., via expectations and developing supportive relationships with educators) in children’s education, even in middle and high school.
- Adams, K. S., & Christenson, S. L. (2000). Trust and the family-school relationship examination of parent-teacher differences in elementary and secondary grades. Journal of School Psychology, 38(5), 477–497. CrossRef
- Bandura, A., Barbaranelli, C., Caprara, G. V., & Pastorelli, C. (2001). Self-efficacy beliefs as shapers of children’s aspirations and career trajectories. Child Development, 72, 187–206. doi:10.1111/1467-8624.00273. CrossRef
- Bronfenbrenner, U., & Morris, P. A. (2006). The bioecological model of human development. In R. M. Lerner & W. Damon (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology: Vol. 1. Theoretical models of human development (6th ed., pp. 793–828). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
- Carbonaro, W. J. (1998). A little help from my friend’s parents: Intergenerational closure and educational outcomes. Sociology of Education, 71, 295–313.
- Catsambis, S. (2001). Expanding knowledge of parental involvement in children’s secondary education: Connections with high school seniors’ academic success. Social Psychology of Education, 5(2), 149–177. CrossRef
- Chiu, M. M. (2007). Families, economies, cultures, and science achievement in 41 countries: Country-, school-, and student-level analyses. Journal of Family Psychology, 21(3), 510. CrossRef
- Chiu, M. M., & Xihua, Z. (2008). Family and motivation effects on mathematics achievement: Analyses of students in 41 countries. Learning and Instruction, 18(4), 321–336. CrossRef
- Christenson, S. L. (2003). The family-school partnership: An opportunity to promote the learning competence of all students. School Psychology Quarterly, 18(4), 454–482. doi:10.1521/scpq.18.4.454.26995. CrossRef
- Craig, W., Harel-Fisch, Y., Fogel-Grinvald, H., Dostaler, S., Hetland, J., & Simons-Morton, B. (2009). A cross-national profile of bullying and victimization among adolescents in 40 countries. International Journal of Public Health, 54(2), 216–224. CrossRef
- Davison, M. L., Seo, Y. S., Davenport, E. C., Butterbaugh, D., & Davison, L. J. (2004). When do children fall behind? What can be done? Phi Delta Kappan, 85(10), 752–761.
- Eccles, J., & Harold, R. (1993). Parent-school involvement during the early adolescent years. The Teachers College Record, 94(3), 568–587.
- Eccles, J. S., & Wigfield, A. (2002). Motivational beliefs, values, and goals. Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 109–132. doi:10.1146/annurev.psych.53.100901.135153.
- Englund, M. M., Luckner, A. E., Whaley, G. J. L., & Egelund, B. (2004). Children’s achievement in early elementary school: Longitudinal effects of parental involvement, expectations, and quality of assistance. Journal of Educational Psychology, 96, 723–730. doi:10.1037/0022-06220.127.116.113. CrossRef
- Fan, X. (2001). Parental involvement and students’ academic achievement: A growth modeling analysis. The Journal of Experimental Education, 70(1), 27–61. CrossRef
- Fan, X., & Chen, M. (2001). Parental involvement and students’ academic achievement: A meta-analysis. Educational Psychology, 13, 1–22. doi:10.1023/A:1009048817385. CrossRef
- Froiland, J. M. (2011). Parental autonomy support and student learning goals: A preliminary examination of an intrinsic motivation intervention. Child and Youth Care Forum, 40, 135–149. doi:10.1007/s10566-010-9126-2. CrossRef
- Froiland, J. M. (2013). Parents’ weekly descriptions of autonomy supportive communication: Promoting children’s motivation to learn and positive emotions. Journal of Child and Family Studies. Advance online publication. doi:10.1007/s10826-013-9819-x.
- Froiland, J. M., & Oros, E. (2013). Intrinsic motivation, perceived competence and classroom engagement as longitudinal predictors of adolescent reading achievement. Educational Psychology. Advance online publication. doi:10.1080/01443410.2013.822964.
- Froiland, J. M., Peterson, A., & Davison, M. L. (2013). The long-term effects of early parent involvement and parent expectation in the USA. School Psychology International, 34, 33–50. doi:10.1177/0143034312454361. CrossRef
- Froiland, J. M., Powell, D. R., & Diamond, K. E. (2013). Relations among neighborhood social networks, home literacy environments, and children’s expressive vocabulary in suburban at-risk families. School Psychology International. Advance online publication. doi:10.1177/0143034313500415.
- Froiland, J. M., Powell, D. R., Diamond, K. E., & Son, S.-H. (2013). Neighborhood socioeconomic well-being, home literacy, and early literacy skills of at-risk preschoolers. Psychology in the Schools, 50, 755–769. doi:10.1002/pits.21711. CrossRef
- Georgiou, S. N., & Stavrinides, P. (2013). Parenting at home and bullying at school. Social Psychology of Education, 1–15, doi:10.1007/s11218-012-9209-z.
- Hagedorn, M., Roth, S.B., O’Donnell, K. Smith, S., and Mulligan, G. (2008). National Household Education Surveys Program of 2007: Data File User’s Manual, Volume I. (NCES 2009–024). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education.
- Henderson, A. T., & Mapp, K. L. (2002). A new wave of evidence: The impact of school, family, and community connections on student achievement: Annual synthesis 2002. Austin, TX: Southwest Educational Development Laboratory.
- Hill, N. E., & Tyson, D. F. (2009). Parental involvement in middle school: A meta-analytic assessment of the strategies that promote achievement. Developmental Psychology, 45, 740–763. doi:10.1037/a0015362. CrossRef
- Hinshaw, S. P. (1992). Externalizing behavior problems and academic underachievement in childhood and adolescence: causal relationships and underlying mechanisms. Psychological bulletin, 111(1), 127. CrossRef
- Hoover-Dempsey, K. V., Whitaker, M. C., & Ice, C. L. (2010). Motivation and commitment to family-school partnerships. In S. L. Christenson & A. L. Reschly (Eds.), Handbook of school-family partnerships (pp. 30–60). London: Routledge.
- Hu, L., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6, 1–55. CrossRef
- Jeynes, W. H. (2005a). Effects of parental involvement and family structure on the academic achievement of adolescents. Marriage & Family Review, 37(3), 99–116. CrossRef
- Jeynes, W. H. (2005b). A meta-analysis of the relation of parental involvement to urban elementary school student academic achievement. Urban Education, 40(3), 237–269. CrossRef
- Jeynes, W. H. (2007). The relationship between parental involvement and urban secondary school student academic achievement. A meta-analysis. Urban Education, 42(1), 82–110. CrossRef
- Jeynes, W. (2010). The salience of the subtle aspects of parental involvement and encouraging that involvement: Implications for school-based programs. The Teachers College Record, 112(3), 747–774.
- Jeynes, W. (2012). A meta-analysis of the efficacy of different types of parental involvement programs for urban students. Urban Education, 47(4), 706–742. CrossRef
- Jimerson, S., Carlson, E., Rotert, M., Egeland, B., & Sroufe, L. A. (1997). A prospective, longitudinal study of the correlates and consequences of early grade retention. Journal of School Psychology, 35(1), 3–25. CrossRef
- Jimerson, S. R., Pletcher, S. M., Graydon, K., Schnurr, B. L., Nickerson, A. B., & Kundert, D. K. (2006). Beyond grade retention and social promotion: Promoting the social and academic competence of students. Psychology in the Schools, 43(1), 85–97. CrossRef
- Keith, T. Z., Keith, P. B., Troutman, G. C., Bickley, P. G., Trivette, P. S., & Singh, K. (1993). Does parental involvement affect eighth-grade student achievement? Structural analysis of national data. School Psychology Review, 22, 474–496.
- Kenny, D. (2011). Measuring model fit. Retrieved from http://www.davidakenny.net/cm/fit.htm on 12–12-12.
- Kim, S., Orpinas, P., Kamphaus, R., & Kelder, S. H. (2011). A multiple risk factors model of the development of aggression among early adolescents from urban disadvantaged neighborhoods. School Psychology Quarterly, 26(3), 215. CrossRef
- Kohl, G. O., Lengua, L. J., & McMahon, R. J. (2000). Parent involvement in school: Conceptualizing dimensions and their relations with family and demographic risk factors. Journal of School Psychology, 38, 501–523. CrossRef
- Muller, C. (1998). Gender differences in parental involvement and adolescents’ mathematics achievement. Sociology of Education, 71(4), 336–356. CrossRef
- Okagaki, L., & Frensch, P. A. (1998). Parenting and children’s school achievement: A multiethnic perspective. American Educational Research Journal, 35(1), 123–144. CrossRef
- Pena, D. C. (2000). Parent involvement: Influencing factors and implications. The Journal of Educational Research, 94(1), 42–54. CrossRef
- Peng, S. S., & Wright, D. (1994). Explanation of academic achievement of Asian American students. The Journal of Educational Research, 87(6), 346–352. CrossRef
- Powell, D. R., Son, S. H., & File, N. (2010). Parent-school relationships and children’s academic and social outcomes in public school pre-kindergarten. Journal of School Psychology, 48(4), 269–292. CrossRef
- Powell, D. R., Son, S.-H., File, N., & Froiland, J. M. (2012). Changes in parent involvement across the transition from public school prekindergarten to first grade and children’s academic outcomes. The Elementary School Journal, 113(2), 276–300. doi:10.1086/667726. CrossRef
- Räty, H., & Kasanen, K. (2010). A seven-year follow-up study on parents’ expectations of their children’s further education. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 40, 2711–2735. doi:10.1111/j.1559-1816.2010.00677.x. CrossRef
- Räty, H. (2011). Past in the present: The way parents remember their own school years relates to the way they participate in their child’s schooling and remember his/her school years. Social Psychology of Education, 14(3), 347–360. CrossRef
- Stevenson, D. L., & Basker , D. P. (1987). The family-school relation and the child’s school performance. Child development, 58, 1348–1357.
- Sui-Chu, E. H., & Willms, J. D. (1996). Effects of parental involvement on eighth-grade achievement. Sociology of education, 69, 126–141.
- Turney, K., & Kao, G. (2009). Barriers to school involvement: Are immigrant parents disadvantaged? Journal of Educational Research, 102(4), 257–271. doi:10.3200/JOER.102.4.257-271. CrossRef
- Whaley, A. L., & Noel, L. (2013). Academic achievement and behavioral health among Asian American and African American adolescents: Testing the model minority and inferior minority assumptions. Social Psychology of Education, 16, 23–43. doi:10.1007/s11218-012-9206-2. CrossRef
- Xu, M., Benson, S. N. K., Mudrey-Camino, R., & Steiner, R. P. (2010). The relationship between parental involvement, self-regulated learning, and reading achievement of fifth graders: A path analysis using the ECLS-K database. Social Psychology of Education, 13(2), 237–269. CrossRef
- Zhang, Y., Haddad, E., Torres, B., & Chen, C. (2011). The reciprocal relationships among parents’ expectations, adolescents’ expectations, and adolescents’ achievement: A two-wave longitudinal analysis of the NELS data. Journal of youth and adolescence, 40(4), 479–489. CrossRef
- Parental expectations and school relationships as contributors to adolescents’ positive outcomes
Social Psychology of Education
Volume 17, Issue 1 , pp 1-17
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Springer Netherlands
- Additional Links
- Parent expectations
- Parent school relationship
- Academic achievement
- School retention
- Classroom behavior