Article

Space Science Reviews

, Volume 170, Issue 1, pp 167-227

First online:

Open Access This content is freely available online to anyone, anywhere at any time.

The ChemCam Instrument Suite on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover: Body Unit and Combined System Tests

  • Roger C. WiensAffiliated withLos Alamos National Laboratory Email author 
  • , Sylvestre MauriceAffiliated withInstitut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie (IRAP), Université Paul Sabatier, UPS-OMPCNRS, IRAP
  • , Bruce BarracloughAffiliated withLos Alamos National LaboratoryPlanetary Science Institute
  • , Muriel SaccoccioAffiliated withCentre National d’Etudes Spatiales
  • , Walter C. BarkleyAffiliated withLos Alamos National Laboratory
  • , James F. BellIIIAffiliated withSchool of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University
  • , Steve BenderAffiliated withLos Alamos National LaboratoryPlanetary Science Institute
  • , John BernardinAffiliated withLos Alamos National Laboratory
  • , Diana BlaneyAffiliated withJet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology
    • , Jennifer BlankAffiliated withNASA Ames Research CenterBay Area Environmental Research Institute
    • , Marc BouyéAffiliated withInstitut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie (IRAP), Université Paul Sabatier, UPS-OMPCNRS, IRAP
    • , Nathan BridgesAffiliated withApplied Physics Laboratory, Johns Hopkins University
    • , Nathan BultmanAffiliated withLos Alamos National Laboratory
    • , Phillippe CaïsAffiliated withLaboratoire d’Astrophysique de Bordeaux, Université of Bordeaux
    • , Robert C. ClantonAffiliated withLos Alamos National Laboratory
    • , Benton ClarkAffiliated withSpace Science Institute
    • , Samuel CleggAffiliated withLos Alamos National Laboratory
    • , Agnes CousinAffiliated withInstitut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie (IRAP), Université Paul Sabatier, UPS-OMPCNRS, IRAP
    • , David CremersAffiliated withApplied Research Associates
    • , Alain CrosAffiliated withInstitut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie (IRAP), Université Paul Sabatier, UPS-OMPCNRS, IRAP
    • , Lauren DeFloresAffiliated withJet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology
    • , Dorothea DelappAffiliated withLos Alamos National Laboratory
    • , Robert DinglerAffiliated withLos Alamos National Laboratory
    • , Claude D’UstonAffiliated withInstitut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie (IRAP), Université Paul Sabatier, UPS-OMPCNRS, IRAP
    • , M. Darby DyarAffiliated withDept. of Astronomy, Mount Holyoke College
    • , Tom ElliottAffiliated withJet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology
    • , Don EnemarkAffiliated withLos Alamos National Laboratory
    • , Cecile FabreAffiliated withGéologie et Gestion des Ressources Minérales et Energétiques, Université de Nancy
    • , Mike FloresAffiliated withLos Alamos National Laboratory
    • , Olivier ForniAffiliated withInstitut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie (IRAP), Université Paul Sabatier, UPS-OMPCNRS, IRAP
    • , Olivier GasnaultAffiliated withInstitut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie (IRAP), Université Paul Sabatier, UPS-OMPCNRS, IRAP
    • , Thomas HaleAffiliated withLos Alamos National Laboratory
    • , Charles HaysAffiliated withSchool of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University
    • , Ken HerkenhoffAffiliated withU.S. Geological Survey, Astrogeology Science Center
    • , Ed KanAffiliated withJet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology
    • , Laurel KirklandAffiliated withLunar and Planetary Institute
    • , Driss KouachAffiliated withInstitut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie (IRAP), Université Paul Sabatier, UPS-OMPCNRS, IRAP
    • , David LandisAffiliated withThe Charles Stark Draper Laboratory
    • , Yves LangevinAffiliated withInstitut d’Astrophysique Spatiale, Université de Paris-Sud
    • , Nina LanzaAffiliated withLos Alamos National LaboratoryUniversity of New Mexico
    • , Frank LaRoccaAffiliated withGoddard Space Flight Center
    • , Jeremie LasueAffiliated withLos Alamos National LaboratoryInstitut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie (IRAP), Université Paul Sabatier, UPS-OMPCNRS, IRAP
    • , Joseph LatinoAffiliated withLos Alamos National Laboratory
    • , Daniel LimonadiAffiliated withJet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology
    • , Chris LindensmithAffiliated withJet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology
    • , Cynthia LittleAffiliated withLos Alamos National Laboratory
    • , Nicolas MangoldAffiliated withLPGN, CNRS, UMR6112, Université Nantes
    • , Gerard ManhesAffiliated withInstitute de Physique du Globe de Paris
    • , Patrick MauchienAffiliated withCommissariat à l’Energie Atomique et aux Énergies Alternatives
    • , Christopher McKayAffiliated withNASA Ames Research Center
    • , Ed MillerAffiliated withJet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology
    • , Joe MooneyAffiliated withCeramOptec Industries, Inc.
    • , Richard V. MorrisAffiliated withNASA Johnson Space Center
    • , Leland MorrisonAffiliated withLos Alamos National Laboratory
    • , Tony NelsonAffiliated withLos Alamos National Laboratory
    • , Horton NewsomAffiliated withUniversity of New Mexico
    • , Ann OllilaAffiliated withUniversity of New Mexico
    • , Melanie OttAffiliated withGoddard Space Flight Center
    • , Laurent ParesAffiliated withInstitut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie (IRAP), Université Paul Sabatier, UPS-OMPCNRS, IRAP
    • , René PerezAffiliated withCentre National d’Etudes Spatiales
    • , Franck PoitrassonAffiliated withInstitut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie (IRAP), Université Paul Sabatier, UPS-OMPCNRS, IRAP
    • , Cheryl ProvostAffiliated withCeramOptec Industries, Inc.
    • , Joseph W. ReiterAffiliated withJet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology
    • , Tom RobertsAffiliated withJet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology
    • , Frank RomeroAffiliated withLos Alamos National Laboratory
    • , Violaine SautterAffiliated withLaboratoire de Minéralogie et Cosmochimie du Muséum, Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle
    • , Steven SalazarAffiliated withLos Alamos National Laboratory
    • , John J. SimmondsAffiliated withJet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology
    • , Ralph StiglichAffiliated withLos Alamos National Laboratory
    • , Steven StormsAffiliated withLos Alamos National Laboratory
    • , Nicolas StriebigAffiliated withInstitut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie (IRAP), Université Paul Sabatier, UPS-OMPCNRS, IRAP
    • , Jean-Jacques ThocavenAffiliated withInstitut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie (IRAP), Université Paul Sabatier, UPS-OMPCNRS, IRAP
    • , Tanner TrujilloAffiliated withLos Alamos National Laboratory
    • , Mike UlibarriAffiliated withLos Alamos National Laboratory
    • , David VanimanAffiliated withLos Alamos National LaboratoryPlanetary Science Institute
    • , Noah WarnerAffiliated withJet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology
    • , Rob WaterburyAffiliated withOcean Optics, Inc.
    • , Robert WhitakerAffiliated withLos Alamos National Laboratory
    • , James WittAffiliated withLos Alamos National Laboratory
    • , Belinda Wong-SwansonAffiliated withInnov8 LLC

Abstract

The ChemCam instrument suite on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover Curiosity provides remote compositional information using the first laser-induced breakdown spectrometer (LIBS) on a planetary mission, and provides sample texture and morphology data using a remote micro-imager (RMI). Overall, ChemCam supports MSL with five capabilities: remote classification of rock and soil characteristics; quantitative elemental compositions including light elements like hydrogen and some elements to which LIBS is uniquely sensitive (e.g., Li, Be, Rb, Sr, Ba); remote removal of surface dust and depth profiling through surface coatings; context imaging; and passive spectroscopy over the 240–905 nm range. ChemCam is built in two sections: The mast unit, consisting of a laser, telescope, RMI, and associated electronics, resides on the rover’s mast, and is described in a companion paper. ChemCam’s body unit, which is mounted in the body of the rover, comprises an optical demultiplexer, three spectrometers, detectors, their coolers, and associated electronics and data handling logic. Additional instrument components include a 6 m optical fiber which transfers the LIBS light from the telescope to the body unit, and a set of onboard calibration targets. ChemCam was integrated and tested at Los Alamos National Laboratory where it also underwent LIBS calibration with 69 geological standards prior to integration with the rover. Post-integration testing used coordinated mast and instrument commands, including LIBS line scans on rock targets during system-level thermal-vacuum tests. In this paper we describe the body unit, optical fiber, and calibration targets, and the assembly, testing, and verification of the instrument prior to launch.

Keywords

Mars Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy LIBS RMI Mars Science Laboratory MSL Curiosity Gale Crater Laser plasma ChemCam