Article

Space Science Reviews

, Volume 170, Issue 1, pp 167-227

Open Access This content is freely available online to anyone, anywhere at any time.

The ChemCam Instrument Suite on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover: Body Unit and Combined System Tests

  • Roger C. WiensAffiliated withLos Alamos National Laboratory Email author 
  • , Sylvestre MauriceAffiliated withInstitut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie (IRAP), Université Paul Sabatier, UPS-OMPCNRS, IRAP
  • , Bruce BarracloughAffiliated withLos Alamos National LaboratoryInstitut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie (IRAP), Université Paul Sabatier, UPS-OMPPlanetary Science Institute
  • , Muriel SaccoccioAffiliated withCentre National d’Etudes Spatiales
  • , Walter C. BarkleyAffiliated withLos Alamos National Laboratory
  • , James F. BellIIIAffiliated withSchool of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University
  • , Steve BenderAffiliated withLos Alamos National LaboratoryInstitut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie (IRAP), Université Paul Sabatier, UPS-OMPPlanetary Science Institute
  • , John BernardinAffiliated withLos Alamos National Laboratory
  • , Diana BlaneyAffiliated withJet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology
    • , Jennifer BlankAffiliated withInstitut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie (IRAP), Université Paul Sabatier, UPS-OMPBay Area Environmental Research InstituteNASA Ames Research Center
    • , Marc BouyéAffiliated withInstitut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie (IRAP), Université Paul Sabatier, UPS-OMPCNRS, IRAP
    • , Nathan BridgesAffiliated withApplied Physics Laboratory, Johns Hopkins University
    • , Nathan BultmanAffiliated withLos Alamos National Laboratory
    • , Phillippe CaïsAffiliated withLaboratoire d’Astrophysique de Bordeaux, Université of Bordeaux
    • , Robert C. ClantonAffiliated withLos Alamos National Laboratory
    • , Benton ClarkAffiliated withLos Alamos National LaboratorySpace Science Institute
    • , Samuel CleggAffiliated withLos Alamos National Laboratory
    • , Agnes CousinAffiliated withInstitut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie (IRAP), Université Paul Sabatier, UPS-OMPCNRS, IRAP
    • , David CremersAffiliated withLos Alamos National LaboratoryApplied Research Associates
    • , Alain CrosAffiliated withInstitut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie (IRAP), Université Paul Sabatier, UPS-OMPCNRS, IRAP
    • , Lauren DeFloresAffiliated withJet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology
    • , Dorothea DelappAffiliated withLos Alamos National Laboratory
    • , Robert DinglerAffiliated withLos Alamos National Laboratory
    • , Claude D’UstonAffiliated withInstitut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie (IRAP), Université Paul Sabatier, UPS-OMPCNRS, IRAP
    • , M. Darby DyarAffiliated withLos Alamos National LaboratoryDept. of Astronomy, Mount Holyoke College
    • , Tom ElliottAffiliated withJet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology
    • , Don EnemarkAffiliated withLos Alamos National Laboratory
    • , Cecile FabreAffiliated withLos Alamos National LaboratoryGéologie et Gestion des Ressources Minérales et Energétiques, Université de Nancy
    • , Mike FloresAffiliated withLos Alamos National Laboratory
    • , Olivier ForniAffiliated withInstitut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie (IRAP), Université Paul Sabatier, UPS-OMPCNRS, IRAP
    • , Olivier GasnaultAffiliated withInstitut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie (IRAP), Université Paul Sabatier, UPS-OMPCNRS, IRAP
    • , Thomas HaleAffiliated withLos Alamos National Laboratory
    • , Charles HaysAffiliated withSchool of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University
    • , Ken HerkenhoffAffiliated withLos Alamos National LaboratoryU.S. Geological Survey, Astrogeology Science Center
    • , Ed KanAffiliated withJet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology
    • , Laurel KirklandAffiliated withLos Alamos National LaboratoryLunar and Planetary Institute
    • , Driss KouachAffiliated withInstitut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie (IRAP), Université Paul Sabatier, UPS-OMPCNRS, IRAP
    • , David LandisAffiliated withLos Alamos National LaboratoryThe Charles Stark Draper Laboratory
    • , Yves LangevinAffiliated withLos Alamos National LaboratoryInstitut d’Astrophysique Spatiale, Université de Paris-Sud
    • , Nina LanzaAffiliated withLos Alamos National LaboratoryUniversity of New Mexico
    • , Frank LaRoccaAffiliated withLos Alamos National LaboratoryGoddard Space Flight Center
    • , Jeremie LasueAffiliated withLos Alamos National LaboratoryInstitut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie (IRAP), Université Paul Sabatier, UPS-OMPCNRS, IRAP
    • , Joseph LatinoAffiliated withLos Alamos National Laboratory
    • , Daniel LimonadiAffiliated withJet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology
    • , Chris LindensmithAffiliated withJet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology
    • , Cynthia LittleAffiliated withLos Alamos National Laboratory
    • , Nicolas MangoldAffiliated withInstitut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie (IRAP), Université Paul Sabatier, UPS-OMPLPGN, CNRS, UMR6112, Université Nantes
    • , Gerard ManhesAffiliated withInstitut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie (IRAP), Université Paul Sabatier, UPS-OMPInstitute de Physique du Globe de Paris
    • , Patrick MauchienAffiliated withInstitut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie (IRAP), Université Paul Sabatier, UPS-OMPCommissariat à l’Energie Atomique et aux Énergies Alternatives
    • , Christopher McKayAffiliated withInstitut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie (IRAP), Université Paul Sabatier, UPS-OMPNASA Ames Research Center
    • , Ed MillerAffiliated withJet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology
    • , Joe MooneyAffiliated withInstitut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie (IRAP), Université Paul Sabatier, UPS-OMPCeramOptec Industries, Inc.
    • , Richard V. MorrisAffiliated withInstitut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie (IRAP), Université Paul Sabatier, UPS-OMPNASA Johnson Space Center
    • , Leland MorrisonAffiliated withLos Alamos National Laboratory
    • , Tony NelsonAffiliated withLos Alamos National Laboratory
    • , Horton NewsomAffiliated withLos Alamos National LaboratoryUniversity of New Mexico
    • , Ann OllilaAffiliated withLos Alamos National LaboratoryUniversity of New Mexico
    • , Melanie OttAffiliated withLos Alamos National LaboratoryGoddard Space Flight Center
    • , Laurent ParesAffiliated withInstitut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie (IRAP), Université Paul Sabatier, UPS-OMPCNRS, IRAP
    • , René PerezAffiliated withCentre National d’Etudes Spatiales
    • , Franck PoitrassonAffiliated withInstitut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie (IRAP), Université Paul Sabatier, UPS-OMPCNRS, IRAP
    • , Cheryl ProvostAffiliated withInstitut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie (IRAP), Université Paul Sabatier, UPS-OMPCeramOptec Industries, Inc.
    • , Joseph W. ReiterAffiliated withJet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology
    • , Tom RobertsAffiliated withJet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology
    • , Frank RomeroAffiliated withLos Alamos National Laboratory
    • , Violaine SautterAffiliated withInstitut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie (IRAP), Université Paul Sabatier, UPS-OMPLaboratoire de Minéralogie et Cosmochimie du Muséum, Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle
    • , Steven SalazarAffiliated withLos Alamos National Laboratory
    • , John J. SimmondsAffiliated withJet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology
    • , Ralph StiglichAffiliated withLos Alamos National Laboratory
    • , Steven StormsAffiliated withLos Alamos National Laboratory
    • , Nicolas StriebigAffiliated withInstitut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie (IRAP), Université Paul Sabatier, UPS-OMPCNRS, IRAP
    • , Jean-Jacques ThocavenAffiliated withInstitut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie (IRAP), Université Paul Sabatier, UPS-OMPCNRS, IRAP
    • , Tanner TrujilloAffiliated withLos Alamos National Laboratory
    • , Mike UlibarriAffiliated withLos Alamos National Laboratory
    • , David VanimanAffiliated withLos Alamos National LaboratoryInstitut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie (IRAP), Université Paul Sabatier, UPS-OMPPlanetary Science Institute
    • , Noah WarnerAffiliated withJet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology
    • , Rob WaterburyAffiliated withInstitut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie (IRAP), Université Paul Sabatier, UPS-OMPOcean Optics, Inc.
    • , Robert WhitakerAffiliated withLos Alamos National Laboratory
    • , James WittAffiliated withLos Alamos National Laboratory
    • , Belinda Wong-SwansonAffiliated withInstitut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie (IRAP), Université Paul Sabatier, UPS-OMPInnov8 LLC

Abstract

The ChemCam instrument suite on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover Curiosity provides remote compositional information using the first laser-induced breakdown spectrometer (LIBS) on a planetary mission, and provides sample texture and morphology data using a remote micro-imager (RMI). Overall, ChemCam supports MSL with five capabilities: remote classification of rock and soil characteristics; quantitative elemental compositions including light elements like hydrogen and some elements to which LIBS is uniquely sensitive (e.g., Li, Be, Rb, Sr, Ba); remote removal of surface dust and depth profiling through surface coatings; context imaging; and passive spectroscopy over the 240–905 nm range. ChemCam is built in two sections: The mast unit, consisting of a laser, telescope, RMI, and associated electronics, resides on the rover’s mast, and is described in a companion paper. ChemCam’s body unit, which is mounted in the body of the rover, comprises an optical demultiplexer, three spectrometers, detectors, their coolers, and associated electronics and data handling logic. Additional instrument components include a 6 m optical fiber which transfers the LIBS light from the telescope to the body unit, and a set of onboard calibration targets. ChemCam was integrated and tested at Los Alamos National Laboratory where it also underwent LIBS calibration with 69 geological standards prior to integration with the rover. Post-integration testing used coordinated mast and instrument commands, including LIBS line scans on rock targets during system-level thermal-vacuum tests. In this paper we describe the body unit, optical fiber, and calibration targets, and the assembly, testing, and verification of the instrument prior to launch.

Keywords

Mars Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy LIBS RMI Mars Science Laboratory MSL Curiosity Gale Crater Laser plasma ChemCam