Space Science Reviews

, Volume 150, Issue 1, pp 183–207

Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector for the NASA Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter

  • I. G. Mitrofanov
  • A. Bartels
  • Y. I. Bobrovnitsky
  • W. Boynton
  • G. Chin
  • H. Enos
  • L. Evans
  • S. Floyd
  • J. Garvin
  • D. V. Golovin
  • A. S. Grebennikov
  • K. Harshman
  • L. L. Kazakov
  • J. Keller
  • A. A. Konovalov
  • A. S. Kozyrev
  • A. R. Krylov
  • M. L. Litvak
  • A. V. Malakhov
  • T. McClanahan
  • G. M. Milikh
  • M. I. Mokrousov
  • S. Ponomareva
  • R. Z. Sagdeev
  • A. B. Sanin
  • V. V. Shevchenko
  • V. N. Shvetsov
  • R. Starr
  • G. N. Timoshenko
  • T. M. Tomilina
  • V. I. Tretyakov
  • J. Trombka
  • V. S. Troshin
  • V. N. Uvarov
  • A. B. Varennikov
  • A. A. Vostrukhin
Article

DOI: 10.1007/s11214-009-9608-4

Cite this article as:
Mitrofanov, I.G., Bartels, A., Bobrovnitsky, Y.I. et al. Space Sci Rev (2010) 150: 183. doi:10.1007/s11214-009-9608-4

Abstract

The design of the Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) experiment is presented, which was optimized to address several of the primary measurement requirements of NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO): high spatial resolution hydrogen mapping of the Moon’s upper-most surface, identification of putative deposits of appreciable near-surface water ice in the Moon’s polar cold traps, and characterization of the human-relevant space radiation environment in lunar orbit. A comprehensive program of LEND instrument physical calibrations is discussed and the baseline scenario of LEND observations from the primary LRO lunar orbit is presented. LEND data products will be useful for determining the next stages of the emerging global lunar exploration program, and they will facilitate the study of the physics of hydrogen implantation and diffusion in the regolith, test the presence of water ice deposits in lunar cold polar traps, and investigate the role of neutrons within the radiation environment of the shallow lunar surface.

Moon Neutrons emission Surface composition Radiationbackground 

Abbreviations

AC

Anti-coincidence

ACS

Anti-coincidence system

CSEN 1–4

Collimated sensor of epithermal neutrons 1–4

DB

Data base

DSA

Deep space antenna

eV

Electron-volt

FPGA

Field programmable gate array

FOV

Field of view

FRE

Front-end/read-out electronics

FRE&S

Front-end/read-out electronics and selection

FU

Flight unit

FWHM

Full width half maximum

GSFC

Goddard space flight center

HV

High voltage

HVP

High voltage provision

IKI

Russian acronym for institute for space research

LCROSS

Lunar crater observation and sensing satellite

LEND

Lunar exploration neutron detector

LND

Name of manufactory of neutron sensors

LOLA

Lunar orbiter laser altimeter

LRO

Lunar reconnaissance orbiter

LVP

Low voltage provision

MeV

Mega electron-volt

MC

Module of collimation

MHz

Mega-hertz

MLI

Multi-layer isolation

MOC

Mission operation center

MSE

Module of sensors and electronics

OSR

Optical solar reflector

PDS

Planetary data system

PMT

Photo-multiplier tube

ppm

Particles per million

PPS

Pulse per second

RAM

Random access memory

RTAX

Radiation tolerant model of Actel FPGA

S/C

Spacecraft

SHEN

Sensor of high energy neutrons

SETN

Sensor of epithermal neutrons

SOC

Science operation center

STD

Standard

STN 1–3

Sensor of thermal neutrons 1–3

SPE

Solar particle events

TCS

Thermal control system

UMD

University of Maryland

UofA

University of Arizona

QU

Qualification unit

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • I. G. Mitrofanov
    • 1
  • A. Bartels
    • 7
  • Y. I. Bobrovnitsky
    • 4
  • W. Boynton
    • 8
  • G. Chin
    • 7
  • H. Enos
    • 8
  • L. Evans
    • 10
  • S. Floyd
    • 7
  • J. Garvin
    • 7
  • D. V. Golovin
    • 1
  • A. S. Grebennikov
    • 4
  • K. Harshman
    • 8
  • L. L. Kazakov
    • 5
  • J. Keller
    • 7
  • A. A. Konovalov
    • 1
  • A. S. Kozyrev
    • 1
  • A. R. Krylov
    • 3
  • M. L. Litvak
    • 1
  • A. V. Malakhov
    • 1
  • T. McClanahan
    • 7
  • G. M. Milikh
    • 6
  • M. I. Mokrousov
    • 1
  • S. Ponomareva
    • 4
  • R. Z. Sagdeev
    • 6
  • A. B. Sanin
    • 1
  • V. V. Shevchenko
    • 2
  • V. N. Shvetsov
    • 3
  • R. Starr
    • 9
  • G. N. Timoshenko
    • 3
  • T. M. Tomilina
    • 4
  • V. I. Tretyakov
    • 1
  • J. Trombka
    • 7
  • V. S. Troshin
    • 1
  • V. N. Uvarov
    • 1
  • A. B. Varennikov
    • 1
  • A. A. Vostrukhin
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute for Space ResearchMoscowRussia
  2. 2.Sternberg Astronomical Institute of Moscow State UniversityMoscowRussia
  3. 3.Joint Institute of Nuclear EnergyMoscowRussia
  4. 4.A.A. Blagonravov Institute of Mechanical EngineeringMoscowRussia
  5. 5.All-Russian Research Institute of Atomic ReactorsDimitrovgrad-10Russia
  6. 6.University of MarylandCollege ParkUSA
  7. 7.NASA Goddard Space Flight CenterGreenbeltUSA
  8. 8.University of ArizonaTucsonUSA
  9. 9.Catholic UniversityWashingtonUSA
  10. 10.Computer Sciences CorporationGlenn DaleUSA

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