Solar Physics

, Volume 275, Issue 1, pp 229–259

Design and Ground Calibration of the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) Instrument on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO)

  • J. Schou
  • P. H. Scherrer
  • R. I. Bush
  • R. Wachter
  • S. Couvidat
  • M. C. Rabello-Soares
  • R. S. Bogart
  • J. T. Hoeksema
  • Y. Liu
  • T. L. DuvallJr.
  • D. J. Akin
  • B. A. Allard
  • J. W. Miles
  • R. Rairden
  • R. A. Shine
  • T. D. Tarbell
  • A. M. Title
  • C. J. Wolfson
  • D. F. Elmore
  • A. A. Norton
  • S. Tomczyk
Open AccessTHE SOLAR DYNAMICS OBSERVATORY

DOI: 10.1007/s11207-011-9842-2

Cite this article as:
Schou, J., Scherrer, P.H., Bush, R.I. et al. Sol Phys (2012) 275: 229. doi:10.1007/s11207-011-9842-2

Abstract

The Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) investigation (Solar Phys. doi:10.1007/s11207-011-9834-2, 2011) will study the solar interior using helioseismic techniques as well as the magnetic field near the solar surface. The HMI instrument is part of the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) that was launched on 11 February 2010. The instrument is designed to measure the Doppler shift, intensity, and vector magnetic field at the solar photosphere using the 6173 Å Fe i absorption line. The instrument consists of a front-window filter, a telescope, a set of waveplates for polarimetry, an image-stabilization system, a blocking filter, a five-stage Lyot filter with one tunable element, two wide-field tunable Michelson interferometers, a pair of 40962 pixel cameras with independent shutters, and associated electronics. Each camera takes a full-disk image roughly every 3.75 seconds giving an overall cadence of 45 seconds for the Doppler, intensity, and line-of-sight magnetic-field measurements and a slower cadence for the full vector magnetic field. This article describes the design of the HMI instrument and provides an overview of the pre-launch calibration efforts. Overviews of the investigation, details of the calibrations, data handling, and the science analysis are provided in accompanying articles.

Keywords

Solar Dynamics Observatory Helioseismology, observations Instrumentation and data management Magnetic fields, photosphere 
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Supplementary material

11207_2011_9842_MOESM1_ESM.txt (149 kb)
(TXT 149 kB)
11207_2011_9842_MOESM2_ESM.txt (158 kb)
(TXT 157 kB)
11207_2011_9842_MOESM3_ESM.pdf (62 kb)
SDO/HMI Operational and Survival Heater Layout (PDF 62 kB)
11207_2011_9842_MOESM4_ESM.pdf (855 kb)
SDO/HMI Sensor Locations (PDF 854 kB)

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Schou
    • 1
  • P. H. Scherrer
    • 1
  • R. I. Bush
    • 1
  • R. Wachter
    • 1
  • S. Couvidat
    • 1
  • M. C. Rabello-Soares
    • 1
  • R. S. Bogart
    • 1
  • J. T. Hoeksema
    • 1
  • Y. Liu
    • 1
  • T. L. DuvallJr.
    • 2
  • D. J. Akin
    • 3
  • B. A. Allard
    • 3
  • J. W. Miles
    • 3
    • 4
  • R. Rairden
    • 3
  • R. A. Shine
    • 3
  • T. D. Tarbell
    • 3
  • A. M. Title
    • 3
  • C. J. Wolfson
    • 3
  • D. F. Elmore
    • 5
    • 7
  • A. A. Norton
    • 5
    • 6
  • S. Tomczyk
    • 5
  1. 1.W.W. Hansen Experimental Physics LaboratoryStanford UniversityStanfordUSA
  2. 2.Laboratory for Astronomy and Solar PhysicsNASA Goddard Space Flight CenterGreenbeltUSA
  3. 3.Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics LaboratoryPalo AltoUSA
  4. 4.USRA NASA Ames Research CenterMoffett FieldUSA
  5. 5.High Altitude ObservatoryNational Center for Atmospheric ResearchBoulderUSA
  6. 6.School of Engineering and Physical SciencesJames Cook UniversityTownsvilleAustralia
  7. 7.National Solar Observatory/Sacramento PeakSunspotUSA