Article

Solar Physics

, Volume 233, Issue 1, pp 107-115

Comparison of the Variations of CMEs and ICMEs with those of other Solar and Interplanetary Parameters During Solar Cycle 23

  • R. P. KaneAffiliated withInstituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, INPE Email author 

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Abstract

This paper examines the variations of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and interplanetary CMEs (ICMEs) during solar cycle 23 and compares these with those of several other indices. During cycle 23, solar and interplanetary parameters had an increase from 1996 (sunspot minimum) to ∼2000, but the interval 1998–2002 had short-term fluctuations. Sunspot numbers had peaks in 1998, 1999, 2000 (largest), 2001 (second largest), and 2002. Other solar indices had matching peaks, but the peak in 2000 was larger than the peak in 2001 only for a few indices, and smaller or equal for other solar indices. The solar open magnetic flux had very different characteristics for different solar latitudes. The high solar latitudes (45–90) in both N and S hemispheres had flux evolutions anti-parallel to sunspot activity. Fluxes in low solar latitudes (0–45) evolved roughly parallel to sunspot activity, but the finer structures (peaks etc. during sunspot maximum years) did not match with sunspot peaks. Also, the low latitude fluxes had considerable N–S asymmetry. For CMEs and ICMEs, there were increases similar to sunspots during 1996–2000, and during 2000–2002, there was good matching of peaks. But the peaks in 2000 and 2001 for CMEs and ICMEs had similar sizes, in contrast to the 2000 peak being greater than the 2001 peak for sunspots. Whereas ICMEs started decreasing from 2001 onwards, CMEs continued to remain high in 2002, probably due to extra contribution from high-latitude prominences, which had no equivalent interplanetary ICMEs or shocks. Cosmic ray intensity had features matching with those of sunspots during 2000–2001, with the 2000 peak (on a reverse scale, actually a cosmic ray decrease or trough) larger than the 2001 peak. However, cosmic ray decreases started with a delay and ended with a delay with respect to sunspot activity.