, Volume 93, Issue 1, pp 117-121
Date: 09 Dec 2008

Does Working While in High School Reduce U.S. Study Time?

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Recent research has generally found that working while in high school has small negative effects on student achievement (Ruhm 1995, 1997; Eckstein and Wolpin 1999; Oettinger 1999; Tyler 2003; Rothstein 2007). However, little research has been done to examine the mechanisms through which these negative effects occur. One plausible mechanism is the crowding out of study time by market work time. To examine this mechanism we use 2003–2006 data from the American Time Use Survey (ATUS) to estimate a simultaneous Tobit model that allows for time spent in market work and homework to be jointly determined, using controls for unobserved person-specific factors (such as motivation) that affect students’ desires to both work and do homework. It also accounts for censoring in the data. Results from this model suggest that time spent in market work does crowd out time spent on homework.


A student’s decisions regarding the amount of time s/he spends doing homework and the time s/he spends in mar

The views expressed in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.