Original Article

Sex Roles

, Volume 66, Issue 7, pp 492-505

First online:

Observing Incivility toward Coworkers and Negative Emotions: Do Gender of the Target and Observer Matter?

  • Kathi N. MinerAffiliated withDepartment of Psychology and Women’s and Gender Studies Program, Texas A&M University Email author 
  • , Angela EischeidAffiliated withDepartment of Psychology, Buena Vista University

Rent the article at a discount

Rent now

* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.

Get Access


The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between observing incivility toward coworkers and negative emotions for observers. We also examined the roles target and observer gender play in this relationship. Participants included 453 restaurant employees (68% female, 76% White) mostly from the Midwest region of the U.S. who completed an online survey assessing observed incivility toward male and female coworkers. They also completed measures of anger, demoralization, fear, and anxiety at work. Results showed that participants reported more negative emotionality when they witnessed incivility toward same-gender coworkers compared to opposite-gender coworkers; this relationship was especially pronounced for male observers for anger, fear, and anxiety, and female observers for demoralization. These findings highlight the importance of secondary gender-based mistreatment and emotions in organizational contexts.


Gender differences Incivility Emotions Workplace Mistreatment