Sex Roles

, Volume 63, Issue 3, pp 226–238

Racism and Sexism as Correlates of African American Women’s Psychological Distress


    • Department of PsychologyUniversity of Tennessee
  • Destin N. Stewart
    • Department of PsychologyUniversity of Tennessee
Original Article

DOI: 10.1007/s11199-010-9788-0

Cite this article as:
Szymanski, D.M. & Stewart, D.N. Sex Roles (2010) 63: 226. doi:10.1007/s11199-010-9788-0


Historically, researchers have neglected the lives of African American women, and very little research has looked specifically at concurrent examinations of multiple oppressions associated with multiple minority identities as predictors of mental health. The current study aimed to increase our knowledge about African American women by examining the relations between external and internalized racism and sexism and African American women’s psychological distress. One hundred sixty participants were recruited through a number of United States’ organizations via the internet. Results indicated that when external and internalized oppression based on race and gender were examined concomitantly, only sexist events emerged as a positive predictor of distress.


Racist events Sexist events Internalized racism Internalized sexism Multiple oppressions

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010