Abrams, K. K., Allen, L. R., & Gray, J. J. (1993). Disordered eating attitudes and behaviors, psychological adjustment, and ethnic identity: a comparison of black and white female college students. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 14
Allen, R. (2001). The concept of self: A study of black identity and self-esteem. Detroit, MI: Wayne State University Press.
Bartko, J. (1966). Intraclass correlation coefficient as a measure of reliability. Psychological Reports, 19
Botta, R. A. (2000). The mirror of television: a comparison of black and white adolescents’ body image. Journal of Communication, 50
Buss, D. M. (2003). The evolution of desire: Strategies of human mating (Rev. ed.). New York: Basic Books.
Buss, D. M., & Schmitt, D. P. (1993). Sexual strategies theory: an evolutionary perspective on human mating. Psychological Review, 100
Cohen, J., & Weimann, G. (2000). Cultivation revisited: some genres have some effects have some effects on some viewers. Communication Reports, 13, 99–114.
Crocker, J., & Major, B. (1989). Social stigma and self-esteem: the self-protective properties of stigma. Psychological Review, 96
Dixon, T. L., & Brooks, T. (2002). Rap music and rap audiences: controversial themes, psychological effects and political resistance. African American Research Perspective, 8, 106–116.
Dixon, T. L., & Linz, D. G. (1997). Obscenity law and sexually explicit rap music: understanding the effects of sex, attitudes, and beliefs. Journal of Applied Communication Research, 25
Eggermont, S., Buellens, K., & van den Bulck, J. (2005). Television viewing and adolescent females’ body dissatisfaction: the mediating role of opposite sex expectations. Communications: The European Journal of Communication Research, 30, 343–357.
Elliott, S. (2003, April 21). Blacks prefer TV fare with Black casts, but tastes of Black and White are converging. New York Times, pp. C12.
Englis, B. G., Solomon, M. R., & Olofosson, A. (1993). Consumption imagery in music television: a bi-cultural perspective. Journal of Advertising, XXII(4), 21–33.
Fleiss, J. L. (1981). Statistical methods for rates and proportions. New York: Wiley.
Fouts, G., & Burggraf, K. (1999). Television situation comedies: female body images and verbal reinforcements. Sex Roles, 40
Fouts, G., & Burggraf, K. (2000). Television situation comedies: female weight, male negative comments, and audience reactions. Sex Roles, 42
Fried, C. B. (1996). Bad rap for rap: bias in reactions to music lyrics. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 26
Gan, S. L., Zillmann, D., & Mitrook, M. (1997). Stereotyping effect of black women’s sexual rap on white audiences. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 19
Gerbner, G., Gross, L., Morgan, M., & Signorielli, N. (1994). Growing up with television: The cultivation perspective. In J. Bryant & D. Zillmann (Eds.), Media effects: Advances in theory and research (pp. 17–41). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Grabe, S., & Hyde, J. S. (2006). Ethnicity and body dissatisfaction among women in the United States: a meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 132
Greenberg, B. S., & Brand, J. E. (1994). Minorities and the mass media: 1970s to 1990s. In J. Bryant & D. Zillmann (Eds.), Media effects: Advances in theory and research (pp. 273–314). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Greenberg, D. R., & LaPorte, D. J. (1996). Racial differences in body type preferences of men for women. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 19
Gunter, B. (1994). The question of media violence. In J. Bryant & D. Zillmann (Eds.), Media effects: Advances in theory and research (pp. 163–211). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Hansen, C. H., & Hansen, R. D. (2000). Music and music videos. In D. Zillman & P. Vorderer (Eds.), Media Entertainment: The Psychology of Its Appeal (pp. 175–196). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Harris, M. B., Walters, L. C., & Waschull, S. (1991). Gender and ethnic differences in obesity-related behaviors and attitudes in a college sample. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 21
Harrison, K., & Cantor, J. (1997). The relationship between media exposure and eating disorders. Journal of Communication, 47
Hawkins, R. P., & Pingree, S. (1982). Television’s influence on social reality. In D. Pearl, L. Bouthilet, & J. Lazar (Eds.), Television and behavior: Ten years of scientific progress and implications for the eighties (DHHS Publications No. ADM 82-1196, Vol. 2, pp. 224–247). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
Hooks, B. (1992). Black looks: Race and representation. Boston: South End.
Jackson, L. A., & McGill, O. D. (1996). Body type preferences and body characteristics associated with attractive and unattractive bodies by African American and Anglo Americans. Sex Roles, 35
Kemper, K. A., Sargent, R. G., Drane, J. W., Valois, R. F., Hussey, J. R., & Leatherman, T. L. (1994). Black and white adolescent females’ perceptions of ideal body size and social norms. Obesity Research, 2
Kolbe, R. H., & Albanese, P. J. (1996). Man to man: a content analysis of sole-male images in male-audience magazines. Journal of Advertising, 25, 1–20.
Kubrin, C. (2005). Gangstas, thugs, and hustlas: identity and the code of the street in rap music. Social Problems, 52
Leit, R. A., Pope, H. G., & Gray, J. J. (2001). Cultural expectations of muscularity in men: the evolution of playgirl centerfolds. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 29
Liebert, R. M., & Sprafkin, J. (1988). The early window: Effects of television on children and youth (3rd ed.). Elmsford, NY: Pergamon.
Lin, C. A. (1998). Use of sex appeals in prime-time television commercials. Sex Roles, 38
MacKinnon, C. A. (1993). Only words. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Marsh, D. (1994, April). The sound and the furies. Playboy, p. 126.
McGraw, K. O., & Wong, S. P. (1996). Forming inferences about some intraclass correlation coefficients. Psychological Methods, 1
Mokdad, A. H., Serdula, M. K., & Dietz, W. H. (1999). The spread of the obesity epidemic in the United States, 1991–1998. Journal of the American Medical Association, 282
Moore, D. S., & McCabe, G. P. (1999). Introduction to the practice of statistics. New York: W. H. Freeman.
National Center for Health Statistics (1994). U.S.A. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Division of Health Examination Statistics. Retrieved February 20th, 2009 from http://www.cdc.gov/nchs
O’Connor, L. A., Brooks-Gunn, J., & Graber, J. (2000). Black and white girls’ racial preferences in media and peer choices and the role of socialization for black girls. Journal of Family Psychology. Special Issue: Cultural Variation in Families, 14, 510–521.
Parnell, K., Sargent, S., Thompson, S. H., Duhe, S. F., Valois, R. F., & Kemper, R. C. (1996). Black white adolescent females’ perceptions of ideal body size. Journal of School Health, 66
Perkins, K. (1996). The influence of television images on black female’s self perceptions of physical attractiveness. Journal of Black Psychology, 22
Potter, W., & Levine-Donnerstein, D. (1999). Rethinking validity and reliability in content analysis. Journal of Applied Communication Research, 27
Raciti, M., & Hendrick, S. S. (1992). Relationship between eating disorder characteristics and love and sex attitudes. Sex Roles, 27
Regan, P. C. (1996). Sexual outcasts: the perceived impact of body weight and gender on sexuality. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 26
Roberts, A., Cash, T. F., Feingold, A., & Johnson, B. T. (2006). Are black-white differences in females’ body dissatisfaction decreasing? A meta-analytic review. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 74
Rose, T. (1989). Orality and technology—rap music and Afro–American cultural resistance. Popular Music And Society, 13(4), 35–44.
Rose, T. (1994). Black noise: rap music and black culture in contemporary America. Hanover and London: Wesleyan University Press.
Rosen, J. C. (1990). Body image disturbances in eating disorders. In T. F. Cash & T. Pruzinsky (Eds.), Body images: Development, deviance, and change (pp. 190–214). New York, NY: Guilford.
Shaw, H., Ramirez, L., Trost, A., Randall, R., & Stice, E. (2004). Body image eating disturbances across ethnic groups: more similarities than differences. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 18
Silverstein, B., Perdue, L., Peterson, B., & Kelly, E. (1986). The role of the mass media in promoting a thin standard of attractiveness for women. Sex Roles, 14
Sipiora, M. P. (1991). Alienation, the self, and television: psychological life in mass culture. Humanistic Psychologist, 19, 158–169.
Smith, S. L., & Boyson, A. (2002). Violence in music videos: examining the prevalence and context of physical aggression. Journal of Communication, 52
Sobal, J., Nicolopoulos, V., & Lee, J. (1995). Attitudes about overweight and dating among secondary school students. International Journal of Obesity, 19
Spillman, D. M., & Everington, C. (1989). Somatotypes revisited: have the media changed our perception of the female body image? Psychological Reports, 64
Spitzer, B. L., Henderson, K. A., & Zivian, M. T. (1999). Gender differences in population versus media body sizes: a comparison over four decades. Sex Roles, 40
Striegel-Moore, R. H., Schreiber, G. B., Pike, K. M., Wilfley, D. E., & Rodin, J. (1995). Drive for thinness in black and white preadolescent girls. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 18
Stunkard, A. J., Sorensen, T. I., & Schulsinger, F. (1983). Use of the Danish adoption register for the study of obesity and thinness. In S. Kety (Ed.), The genetics of neurological and psychiatric disorders (pp. 115–120). New York: Raven.
Tirodkar, M. A., & Jain, A. (2003). Food messages on African American television shows. American Journal of Public Health, 93
Trial witness ties rap to violent act. (1993, July 10). Billboard, p. 71.
Twenge, J. M., & Crocker, J. (2002). Race and self-esteem: meta-analyses comparing Whites, Blacks, Hispanics, Asians, and American Indians and comment on Gray-Little and Halfdahl (2000). Psychological Bulletin, 128
Ward, L. M. (2003). Understanding the role of entertainment media in the sexual socialization of American youth: a review of empirical research. Developmental Review, 23
Watts, E. K. (1997). An exploration of spectacular consumption: gangsta rap as cultural commodity. Communication Studies, 48(1), 42–58.
Wilfley, D., Schreiber, G., Pike, K., Striegel-Moore, R., Wright, D., & Rodin, J. (1996). Eating disturbance and body image: a comparison of a community sample of adult black and white women. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 20
Wilson, B. J., Kunkel, D., Linz, D., Potter, J., Donnersetin, E., Smith, S. L., et al. (1998). Violence in television overall: University of California study. In National television violence study II (pp. 3–204). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Wimmer, R. D., & Dominick, J. R. (2000). Mass media research: An introduction (6th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Wimmer, R. D., & Dominick, J. R. (2005). Mass media research: An introduction (8th ed.). Australia: Wadsworth.
Wingood, G. M., DiClemente, R. J., Bernhardt, J. M., Harrington, K., Davies, S. L., Robillard, A., et al. (2003). A prospective study of exposure to rap music videos and African American female adolescents’ health. Journal of Public Health, 93
Wiseman, C. V., Gray, J. J., Moismann, J. E., & Ahrens, A. H. (1990). Cultural expectations of thinness in women: an update. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 11
Wood, J. V., & Taylor, K. L. (1991). Serving self-relevant goals through social comparison. In J. Suls & T. A. Wills (Eds.), Social comparison: Contemporary theory and research (pp. 23–50). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Zillmann, D., Aust, C. F., Hoffman, K. D., Love, C. C., Ordman, V. L., Pope, J. T., et al. (1995). Radical rap: does it further ethnic division? Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 16
(1 & 2), 1–25.CrossRef
Zimmerman, K. (1992, March 16). Censure for censor bills. Variety, pp. 72–74.