Gender, Race and Morality in the Virtual World and Its Relationship to Morality in the Real World
Purchase on Springer.com
$39.95 / €34.95 / £29.95*
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.
This research examines children’s beliefs about moral behavior in the virtual world and the real world. Participants were 515 children, average age 12 years old. One-third were African American and two-thirds were Caucasian American. Children completed surveys mailed to their homes which included questions about the acceptability of morally questionable virtual behaviors. Findings indicated: (1) gender and race differences in the acceptability of morally questionable behaviors in the virtual world; (2) moral behavior and moral attitudes in the real world predicted the acceptability of morally questionable behaviors in the virtual world; and (3) the frequency of IT use predicted the acceptability of morally questionable behaviors in the virtual world. Implications for children’s IT education are discussed.
- Anderson, C. A., Gentile, D. A., & Buckley, K. E. (2007). Violent video game effects on children and adolescents: Theory, research and public policy. New York: Oxford University Press.
- Bee, H. L. (1995). The developing child. New York: Harper-Collins.
- Bok, S. (1978). Lying: Moral choice in public and private life. New York: Random.
- Bond, M. H. (1986). Lifting one of the last bamboo curtains: Review of the psychology of the Chinese people. Hong Kong: Oxford University Press.
- Carlo, G., Eisenberg, N., & Knight, G. P. (1992). PROM (prosocial moral reasoning). Journal of Research on Adolescence, 2, 331–349. CrossRef
- Boykin, A. W., & Toms, F. D. (1985). Black child socialization: A conceptual framework. In H. P. McAdoo, & J. L. McAdoo (Eds.), Black children: Social, educational and parental environments (pp. 33–51). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
- Charles, C. Z., Dinwiddie, G., & Massey, D. S. (2004). The continuing consequences of segregation: Family stress and college academic performance. Social Science Quarterly, 85, 1353–1373. CrossRef
- Chatman, C. M., Eccles, J. S., & Malanchuk, O. (2005). Identity negotiation in everyday settings. In G. Downey, J. S. Eccles, & C. M. Chatman (Eds.), Navigating the future: Social identity, coping and life tasks (pp. 116–140). New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
- Colby, A., & Kohlberg, L. (Eds.). (1987). The measurement of moral judgment, Vols. 1 and 2. New York: Cambridge University Press.
- Cunningham, M., Swanson, D. P., Spencer, M., & Dupree, D. (2003). The association of physical maturation with family hassles among African American adolescent males. Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology, 9, 276–288. CrossRef
- Edwards, C. (1994). Cross-cultural research on Kohlberg’s stages: The basis for consensus. In W. Wuka (Ed.), Moral development: A compendium (pp. 343–389). New York: Garland.
- Eisenberg, N., Carlo, G., Murphy, B., & Van Court, P. (1995). Prosocial development in late adolescence. Child Development, 66, 1179–1197. CrossRef
- Gilligan, C. (1982). In a different voice: Psychological theory and women’s development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
- Gilligan, C., & Attanucci, J. (1988). Two moral orientations: Gender differences and similarities. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 34, 223–237.
- Green, C. S., & Bavelier, D. (2003). Action video games modify visual attention. Nature, 423, 534–537. CrossRef
- Green, C. S., & Bavelier, D. (2006). Effects of video game playing on the spatial distribution of visual selective attention. Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance, 32, 465–478.
- Green, C. S., & Bavelier, D. (2007). Action video experience alters the spatial resolution of vision. Psychological Science, 18, 88–94. CrossRef
- Hauser, M. (2006). Moral minds: How nature designed our universal sense of right and wrong. New York: Ecco.
- Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture’s consequences: Comparing values, behaviors, institutions and organizations across nations (2nd ed.). New York: Sage.
- Hughes, D., & Chen, L. (1999). The nature of parents’ race-related communications to children: A developmental perspective. In L. Balter, & C. S. Tamis-Lemonda (Eds.), Child psychology: A handbook of contemporary issues (pp. 467–490). Philadelphia: Psychology.
- Hughes, D., Smith, E. P., Stevenson, H. C., Rodriguez, H., & Johnson, D. J. (2006). Parents’ ethnic–racial socialization practices: A review of research and directions for future study. Developmental Psychology, 42, 747–770. CrossRef
- Jackson, L. A. (2008). Adolescents and the Internet. In D. Romer, & P. Jamieson (Eds.), The Changing portrayal of American youth in popular media. Annenberg Public Policy Center at the University of Pennsylvania (pp. 377–410). New York: Oxford University Press.
- Jackson, L. A., von Eye, A., Biocca, F. A., Barbatsis, G., Zhao, Y., & Fitzgerald, H. E. (2006). Children’s home Internet use: Predictors and psychological, social and academic consequences. In R. Kraut, M. Brynin, & S. Kiesler (Eds.), Computers, Phones and the Internet: Domesticating Information Technology (pp. 145–167). New York: Oxford University Press.
- Johnston, K. (1988). Adolescents’ solutions to dilemmas in fables: Two moral orientations. In C. Gilligan, J. V. Ward, J. M. Taylor, & B. Bardige (Eds.), Mapping the moral domain: A contribution to psychological theory and education (pp. 49–69). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
- Josephson Institute’s Report Card on the Ethics of American Youth. (2002, 2004). Retrieved April 23, 2008, from http://charactercounts.org/programs/reportcard/2002/index.html, http://charactercounts.org/programs/reportcard/2004/index.html
- Kohlberg, L. (1984). The psychology of moral development. New York: Harper & Row.
- Kohlberg, L., & Lickona, T. (Eds.). (1976). Moral stages and moralization: The cognitive–developmental approach, Moral Development and Behavior: Theory, Research and Social Issues. New York: Rinehart and Winston.
- Kohlberg, L., & Candee, D. (1984). The relationship of moral judgment to moral action. In L. Kohlberg (Ed.), The psychology of moral development (pp. 498–581). New York: Harper & Row.
- Krebs, D. L., & Janicki, M. (2004). The biological foundations of moral norms. In M. Schaller, & C. Crandall (Eds.), Psychological foundations of culture pp. 125–148. Mahwah, New Jersey: Erlbaum.
- Krebs, D. L., & Denton, K. (2005). Toward a more pragmatic approach to morality: A critical examination of Kohlberg’s model. Psychological Bulletin, 112, 629–649.
- Martin, E. P., & Martin, J. M. (1978). The Black extended family. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
- Miller, J. (2001). Culture and moral development. In D. Matsumoto (Ed.), Handbook of culture and psychology (pp. 151–170). New York: Oxford University Press.
- Oyserman, D., Harrison, K., & Bybee, D. (2001). Can racial identity be promotive of academic efficacy? International Journal of Behavioral Development, 25, 379–385. CrossRef
- Pew Internet & American Family Life Project. (2006). Teens and the Internet: Findings submitted to the House Subcommittee on Telecommunications and the Internet. Pew Internet & American Life Project. Retrieved May 2, 2007, from http://www.pewinternet.org/ppt/Pew%20Internet%20findings%20-%20teens%20and%20the%20internet%20-%20final.pdf
- Roberts, S. K. (2007). African American Christian Ethics. Cleveland, Ohio: The Pilgrim.
- Shelton, J. N., Yip, T., Eccles, J. S., Chatman, C. M., Fuligni, C. M., & Wong, C. (2005). Ethnic identity as a buffer of psychological adjustment to stress. In G. Downey, J. S. Eccles, & C. M. Chatman (Eds.), Navigating the future: Social identity, coping, and life tasks (pp. 96–115). New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
- Siegal, M., Surian, L., Nemeroff, C. J., & Peterson, C. C. (2000). Lies, mistakes, and blessings: Defining and characteristic features in conceptual development. Journal of Cognition and Culture, 1, 323–339. CrossRef
- Snarey, J. (1985). Cross-cultural universality of social–moral development: A critical review of Kohlbergian research. Psychological Bulletin, 97, 202–232. CrossRef
- Sochting, I., Skoe, E. E., & Marcia, J. E. (1994). Care-oriented moral reasoning and prosocial behavior: A question of gender or sex role orientation. Sex Roles, 31, 131–147. CrossRef
- Subrahmanyam, K., Kraut, R. E., Greenfield, P. M., & Gross, E. F. (2000). The impact of home computer use on children’s activities and development. The Future of Children, 10, 123–144. CrossRef
- Swaidan, Z., Mohammed, Y. A., Rawwas, S., & Vitell, S. J. (2008). Culture and moral ideologies of African Americans. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 16, 127–138. CrossRef
- Thornton, M. C., Chatters, L. M., Taylor, R. J., & Allen, W. R. (1990). Sociodemographic and environmental correlates of racial socialization by Black parents. Child Development, 61, 401–409. CrossRef
- Triandis, H. C. (2003). The future of workforce diversity in international organizations: A commentary. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 52, 486–495. CrossRef
- Umaña-Taylor, A. J., & Fine, M. A. (2004). Examining ethnic identity among Mexican-origin adolescents living in the United States. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 26, 36–59. CrossRef
- Walker, L. J. (1984). Sex differences in the development of moral reasoning: A critical review. Child Development, 55, 677–691. CrossRef
- Walker, L. J. (1995). Sexism in Kohlberg’s moral psychology? In W. M. Kurtines, & J. L. Gewirtz (Eds.), Moral development: An introduction (pp. 83–107). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
- Ward, J. (1991). Eyes in the back of your head: Moral themes in African American narratives of racial conflict. Journal of Moral Education, 20, 267–281. CrossRef
- Weisz, A. N., & Black, B. M. (2002). Gender and moral reasoning: African American youth respond to dating dilemmas. Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 5, 35–52. CrossRef
- Gender, Race and Morality in the Virtual World and Its Relationship to Morality in the Real World
Volume 60, Issue 11-12 , pp 859-869
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Springer US
- Additional Links
- Children’s IT use
- Children and the Internet