Al-Makaty, S., Van Tubergen, G., Whitlow, S., & Boyd, D. (1996). Attitude toward advertising in Islam. Journal of Advertising Research, 36, 16–26.
Al-Saud, S. (1997). Altahleel alsosyoulogi litaatheer aliilan altelfisioni ala anmat alistihlak fee alosrah alsaudia’. [Sociological impact of television advertising on consumption levels in Saudi families]. Unpublished Doctoral dissertation, University of Cairo, Cairo.
Al-Sharif, S. (1994). Children in Saudi television adverts. Journal of Gulf and Arabian Peninsula Studies, 73, 73–115.
Al-Yusuf, A. (1989). Commercial advertising in Saudi Arabia: A content analysis. Unpublished master’s thesis, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL.
Arima, A. N. (2003). Gender stereotypes in Japanese television advertisements. Sex Roles
Assael, H. (1998). Consumer Behavior: And Marketing Action. Cincinnati, OH: International Thomson Publishing.
Bartsch, R. A., Burnett, T., Diller, T. R., & Rankin-Williams, E. (2000). Gender representation in television commercials: Updating an update. Sex Roles
Belk, R. W., & Pollay, R. (1985). Materialism and status appeals in Japanese and U.S. print advertising: A historical and cross-cultural content analysis. International Marketing Review
Bresnahan, M. J., Inoue, Y., Liu, W. Y., & Nisihida, T. (2001). Changing gender roles in prime-time commercials in Malaysia, Japan, Taiwan, and the United States. Sex Roles
Brettl, D., & Cantor, J. (1988). The portrayal of men and women in US television commercials: A recent content analysis and trends over 15 years. Sex Roles
Cheng, H., & Schweitzer, J. (1996). Cultural values reflected in Chinese and U.S. television commercials. Journal of Advertising Research, 36, 27–45.
Courtney, A. E., & Whipple, T. W. (1974). Women in TV commercials. Journal of Communication
Culley, J. A., & Bennett, R. (1976). Selling women, selling Blacks. Journal of Communication
Delener, N. (1994). Religious contrasts in consumer decision behaviour patterns: Their dimensions and marketing implications. European Journal of Marketing
Dispenza, J. (1975). Advertising the American Woman. Dayton, Ohio: Dayton Publishing.
Dominick, J., & Rauch, G. (1972). The image of women in network TV commercials. Journal of Broadcasting, 17, 259–266.
Downs, A., & Harrison, S. (1985). Embarrassing age spots or just plain ugly: Physical attractiveness stereotyping as an instrument of genderism on American television commercials. Sex Roles
Durkin, K. (1985a). Television and sex-role acquisition: 1. Content. British Journal of Social Psychology
Durkin, K. (1985b). Television, Sex Roles and Children. Milton Keynes, UK: Open University Press.
Durkin, K. (1985c). Television and sex-role acquisition 3: Counter-stereotyping. British Journal of Social Psychology, 24, 211–222.
Ferrante, C., Haynes, A., & Kingsley, S. (1988). Image of women in television advertising. Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media, 32, 231–237.
Furnham, A., & Bitar, N. (1993). The stereotyped portrayal of men and women in British television advertisements. Sex Roles
Furnham, A., & Farragher, E. (2000). A cross-cultural content analysis of sex-role stereotyping in television advertisements: A comparison between Britain and New Zealand. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media
Furnham, A., & Mak, T. (1999). Sex-role stereotyping in television commercials: A review and comparison of 14 studies done on five continents over 25 years. Sex Roles
Furnham, A., Mak, T., & Tanidjojo, L. (2000). An Asian perspective on the portrayal of men and women in television advertisements: Studies from Hong Kong and Indonesian television. Journal of Applied Social Psychology
Furnham, A., & Schofeld, S. (1986). Sex-role stereotyping in British radio advertisements. British Journal of Social Psychology, 25, 165–171.
Furnham, A., & Skae, E. (1997). Portrayals of men and women in British television advertisements. European Psychologist
Furnham, A., & Voli, V. (1989). Gender stereotyping in Italian television advertisements. Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media, 33, 175–185.
Geis, F. L., Brown, V., Jennings (Walstedt), J., & Porter, N. (1984). TV commercials as achievement scripts for women. Sex Roles
Gilly, M. (1988). Gender roles in advertising: A comparison on television advertisements in Australia, Mexico, and the United States. Journal of Marketing
Gunter, B. (1995). Television and gender representation. Luton, UK: John Libbey.
Holsti, O. R. (1969). Content analysis for the social sciences and humanities. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Kim, K., & Lowry, D. T. (2005). Television commercials as a lagging social indicator: Gender role stereotypes in Korean television advertising. Sex Roles, 49, 545–551.
Krippendorf, K. (1980). Content analysis. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
Livingstone, S., & Green, G. (1986). Television advertisements and the portrayal of gender. British Journal of Social Psychology, 25, 149–154.
Lovdal, L. (1989). Gender roles messages in television commercials: An update. Sex Roles
Mackay, N. J., & Covell, K. (1997). The impact of women in advertisements on attitudes toward women. Sex Roles
Manstead, A. S., & McCulloch, C. (1981). Sex-role stereotyping in British television advertisements. British Journal of Social Psychology, 20, 171–180.
Maracek, J., Piliavin, J., Fitzsimmons, E., Krogh, E., Leader, E., & Trudell, B. (1978). Women as TV experts: The voice of authority? Journal of Communication
Marghalani, K., Palmgreen, P., & Boyd, D. (1998). The utilization of direct satellite broadcasting (DBS) in Saudi Arabia. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 42, 297–314.
Mazzella, C., Durkin, K., Cerini, E., & Buralli, P. (1992). Sex-role stereotyping in Australian television advertisements. Sex Roles
McArthur, L. Z., & Resko, B. G. (1975). The portrayal of men and women in American television commercials. Journal of Social Psychology, 11, 109.
Mooij, M. (1998). Global marketing and advertising: Understanding cultural paradoxes. London: Sage Publications Ltd.
Mwangi, M. (1996). Gender roles portrayed in Kenyan television commercials. Sex Roles
Neto, F., & Pinto, I. (1998). Gender stereotypes in Portuguese television advertisements. Sex Roles
O’Donnell, W. J., & O’Donnell, K. J. (1978). Update: Gender role messages in TV commercials. Journal of Communication
Pan Arab Research Centre Report (May, 2001), Retrieved July 21st, 2001 from http://www.arabresearch.com/ami
Pollay, R. (1983). Measuring the cultural values manifest in advertising. In: J. H. Leigh & C. R. Martin Jr. (Eds.), Current Issues and Research in Advertising, 6, 71–92, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Graduate School of Business Division Research.
Rak, D. S., & McMullen, L. M. (1987). Sex-role stereotyping in television commercials: A verbal response mode and content analysis. Canada Journal of Behavioural Science
Razzouk, N., & Al-Khatib, J. (1993). The nature of television advertising in Saudi Arabia: Content analysis and marketing implication. Journal of International Consumer Marketing
Schenider, K. C., & Schneider, S. B. (1979). Trends in gender roles in television commercials. Journal of Marketing
Shoham, A. (1996). Effectiveness of standardised and adapted television advertising: An international field study approach. Journal of International Consumer Marketing
Smith, A. (1995). Television: An International History. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Srikandath, S. (1991). Cultural values in Indian television advertising. Gazette
Thoveron, G. (1987). How women are represented in television programmes in the EEC: Part One; Images of women in news, advertising and series and serials. Brussels: Commission of the European Communities.
Uray, N., & Burnaz, S. (2003). An analysis of the portrayal of gender roles in Turkish television advertisements. Sex Roles
Usunier, J. C. (1996). Marketing across cultures. Hertfordshire: Prentice Hall Europe.
Venkatesan, M., & Losco, J. (1975). Women in magazine ads. Journal of Advertising Research, 15(5), 49–54.
Whitelock, J., & Chung, D. (1989). Cross-cultural advertising: An empirical study. International Journal of Advertising, 8, 291–310.
Zenith Optimedia (2001). Annual December Forecast of Global Advertising Expenditure to 2004. London, UK: Author 3rd December.
Zhang, Y. B., & Harwood, J. (2004). Modernization and tradition in an age of globalization: Cultural values in Chinese television commercials. Journal of Communication