Everyday Victimization of Adolescent Girls by Boys: Sexual Harassment, Bullying or Aggression?
Purchase on Springer.com
$39.95 / €34.95 / £29.95*
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.
School-based sexual harassment of adolescent girls by boys appears commonplace, yet aggression and bullying studies rarely yield sexualized material. This qualitative Australian study with 72 14- to 15-year-olds and 7 teachers aimed to discover whether interviewer use of neutral language in gender-segregated focus groups and interviews would yield material indicating that the victimization of girls by boys is sexualized. Verbal and indirect victimization were reported to be everyday occurrences, and almost entirely sexual. Findings are discussed in the light of definitions of sexual harassment, bullying and aggression. It is concluded that the term “sexual bullying” appropriately captures the gendered power structure underlying these behaviors. As such, they need to be understood, and become visible, more broadly than in terms of individual pathology.
- Alloway, N. (2000). Just kidding? Sex-based harassment at school. A review prepared for the New South Wales Department of Education and Training.
- Bayliss, M. (1995). It just shouldn’t happen: The sexual harassment of schoolgirls by their male school peers. In P. Camilleri & K. Allen-Kelly (Eds.), Welfare and the diversity of practice in North Queensland. Proceedings of Practical Diversity Conference 9–10 Sept 1995, pp. 55–71. Townsville, Queensland: Centre for Social and Welfare Research, James Cook University.
- Berman, H., McKenna, K., Arnold, C. T., Taylor, G., & MacQuarrie, B. (2000). Sexual harassment: Everyday violence in the lives of girls and women. Advances in Nursing Science, 32–43, June.
- Bretherton, D., Allard, A., & Collins, L. (1994). Engendering friendship: Gender and conflict in after school care. In K. Oxenberry, K. Rigby & P. Slee (1994). Proceedings of Children’s Peer Relations Conference, Adelaide, 19–22 January 1994. Adelaide, South Australia.
- Chambers, D., van Loon, J., & Tincknell, E. (2004). Teachers’ views of teenage sexual morality. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 25, 563–576. CrossRef
- Collins, C. (ACER) (1997). The gender and school education national sample study: Implications for girls. Paper presented at DECS Sections 47 Officers Conference, Adelaide, July 1997.
- Crick, N. R., Bigbee, M. A., & Howes, C. (1996). Gender differences in children’s normative beliefs about aggression: How do I hurt thee? Let me count the ways. Child Development, 67, 1003–1014. CrossRef
- Duncan, N. (1999). Sexual bullying. London: Routledge.
- Espelage, D., & Holt, M. K. (2007). Dating violence and sexual harassment across the bully-victim continuum among middle and high school students. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 36, 799–811. CrossRef
- Hand, J. Z., & Sanchez, L. (2000). Badgering or bantering? Gender differences in experience of, and reactions to, sexual harassment among U.S. high school students. Gender and Society, 14, 718–746. CrossRef
- Hogg, M. A., & Abrams, S. D. (1988). Social identifications: A social psychology of intergroup relations and intergroup processes. London: Routledge.
- Klein, J. (2006). An invisible problem: Everyday violence against girls in schools. Theoretical Criminology, 10, 147–177. CrossRef
- Land, D. (2003). Teasing apart secondary students’ conceptualizations of peer teasing, bullying and sexual harassment. School Psychology International, 24, 147–165. CrossRef
- Larkin, J. (1994). Walking through walls: The sexual harassment of high school girls. Gender and Education, 6, 263. CrossRef
- Leets, L., & Giles, H. (1997). Words as weapons—when do they wound? Investigations of harmful speech. Human Communication Research, 24, 260–301. CrossRef
- Martino, W. (1997). “A bunch of arseholes”: Exploring the politics of masculinity for adolescent boys in schools. Social Alternatives, 16(3), 39–43.
- McMaster, L. F., Connolly, J., Pepler, D., & Craig, W. M. (2002). Peer to peer sexual harassment in early adolescence: A developmental perspective. Development and Psychopathology, 14, 91–105. CrossRef
- Milligan, S., & Thompson, K. (1992). Listening to girls: A report of the consultancy undertaken for the review of the national policy for the education of girls. Melbourne: Ashenden and Associates.
- Owens, L. (1996). Sticks and stones and sugar and spice: Girls’ and boys’ aggression in schools. Australian Journal of Guidance and Counselling, 6, 45–55.
- Owens, L. (1998). Physical, verbal and indirect aggression amongst South Australian school students. Unpublished PhD thesis, School of Psychology, The Flinders University of South Australia.
- Owens, L., Daly, A., & Slee, P. (2005a). Sex and age differences in victimization and conflict resolution among adolescents in a South Australian school. Aggressive Behavior, 31, 1–12. CrossRef
- Owens, L. O., Shute, R., & Slee, P. (2000). “Guess what I just heard...” Indirect aggression amongst teenage girls in Australia. Aggressive Behavior, 26, 67–83. CrossRef
- Owens, L., Shute, R., & Slee, P. (2005b). “In the eye of the beholder...”: Girls’, boys’ and teachers’ perceptions of boys’ aggression to girls. International Educational Journal, 5, 142–151. CrossRef
- Owens, L., Shute, R., & Slee, P. (2007). “They do it just to show off.” Year 9 girls,’ boys’ and teachers’ explanations for boys’ aggression to girls. International Journal of Adolescence and Youth, 13, 343–360.
- Paquette, J. A., & Underwood, M. K. (1999). Gender differences in young adolescents’ experiences of peer victimization: Social and physical aggression. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 45, 242–266.
- Paul, J. J. (2003). Dynamics of peer victimization in early adolescence: Results from a four-year longitudinal study. Journal of Applied School Psychology, 19(2), 25–43. CrossRef
- Pellegrini, A. D. (2001). A longitudinal study of heterosexual relationships, aggression, and sexual harassment during the transition from primary school through middle school. Applied Developmental Psychology, 22, 119–133. CrossRef
- Rigby, K. (1998). Gender and bullying in schools. In P. Slee, & K. Rigby (Eds.) Children’s peer relationships: Current issues and future directions. London: Routledge.
- Russell, A., & Owens, L. (1999). Peer estimates of school-aged boys’ and girls’ aggression to same- and cross-sex targets. Social Development, 8, 364–379. CrossRef
- Salmivalli, C., Lagerspetz, K., Bjorkqvist, K., Osterman, K., & Kaukiainen, A. (1996). Bullying as a group process: Participant roles and their relations to social status within the group. Aggressive Behavior, 22, 1–15. CrossRef
- Shute, R., & Charlton, K. (2006). Anger or compromise? Adolescents’ conflict resolution strategies in relation to gender and type of peer relationship. International Journal of Adolescence and Youth, 13, 55–69.
- Slee, P. T. (1998). Bullying amongst Australian primary school students: Some barriers to help-seeking and links with sociometric status. In P. T . Slee, & K. Rigby (Eds.) Children’s peer relations (pp. 205–215). London: Routledge.
- Slee, P. T. (2003). Violence in schools: An Australian commentary. In P. K. Smith (Ed.) Violence in schools: The response in Europe (pp. 301–316). London: Routledge Falmer.
- Slee, P., & Shute, R. (2003). Child development: Thinking about theories. London: Hodder.
- South Australian Equal Opportunities Act. (1984).
- Sullivan, K. (2000). The anti-bullying handbook. Oxford: OUP.
- Timmerman, G. (2003). Sexual harassment of adolescents perpetrated by teachers and by peers: An exploration of the dynamics of power, culture and gender in secondary schools. Sex Roles, 48, 231–244.
- Tulloch, M. (1995). Gender differences in bullying experiences and attitudes to social relationships in high school students. Australian Journal of Education, 39, 279–293.
- Welsh, S. (1999). Gender and sexual harassment. Annual Review of Sociology, 25, 169–190. CrossRef
- Everyday Victimization of Adolescent Girls by Boys: Sexual Harassment, Bullying or Aggression?
Volume 58, Issue 7-8 , pp 477-489
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Springer US
- Additional Links
- Sexual harassment
- Industry Sectors
- Author Affiliations
- 1. Discipline of Psychology and Centre for Health Research and Practice, School of Behavioural and Social Sciences and Humanities, University of Ballarat, Ballarat, Victoria, Australia
- 3. School of Psychology, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, South Australia, 5001, Australia
- 2. School of Education, Flinders University, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia