Sex Roles

, Volume 55, Issue 9, pp 715–724

Culture, Masculinity, and Psychological Well-being in Punjab, India

Original Article

DOI: 10.1007/s11199-006-9126-8

Cite this article as:
Yim, J.Y. & Mahalingam, R. Sex Roles (2006) 55: 715. doi:10.1007/s11199-006-9126-8


This study was designed to examine the relationship between internalized idealized cultural beliefs (machismo, chastity, and caste identity) and psychological well-being (life satisfaction and anxiety) in a male surplus population. The study was conducted using questionnaires in a community sample of Jat caste persons in Punjab, India (N = 398). Overall, the correlation between machismo, chastity, and caste beliefs were significant. Men scored significantly higher than women on beliefs about machismo, chastity, and caste identity. For men, divine beliefs about chastity predicted higher life satisfaction, and prescriptive beliefs about chastity practices predicted lower life satisfaction. For women, machismo predicted lower anxiety. The importance of cultural ecological context in the production of masculinity was highlighted.


MasculinityChastityCasteSex ratioIndia

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Women’s StudiesUniversity of MichiganAnn ArborUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyUniversity of MichiganAnn ArborUSA