Original Article

Sex Roles

, Volume 55, Issue 3, pp 259-266

First online:

Implicit and Explicit Occupational Gender Stereotypes

  • Michael J. WhiteAffiliated withDepartment of Counseling Psychology, Ball State University Email author 
  • , Gwendolen B. WhiteAffiliated withDepartment of Accounting, Ball State University

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This study was designed to compare implicit and explicit occupational gender stereotypes for three occupations (engineer, accountant, and elementary school teacher). These occupations represented the end points and middle of a masculine–feminine continuum of explicit occupational gender stereotypes. Implicit stereotypes were assessed using the Implicit Association Test (IAT), which is believed to minimize self-presentational biases common with explicit measures of occupational gender stereotypes. IAT results for the most gender stereotyped occupations, engineer (masculine) and elementary school teacher (feminine), were comparable to explicit ratings. There was less agreement with less stereotyped comparisons. Results indicated that accounting was implicitly perceived as more masculine than explicit measures indicate, which calls into question reports of diminishing gender stereotyping for such occupations.


Occupational gender stereotypes Implicit stereotypes Stereotypes Implicit Association Test