Original Article

Sex Roles

, Volume 55, Issue 3, pp 247-258

Healthy Women, Healthy Men, and Healthy Adults: An Evaluation of Gender Role Stereotypes in the Twenty-first Century

  • Susan Rachael SeemAffiliated withDepartment of Counselor Education, State University of New York College at Brockport Email author 
  • , M. Diane ClarkAffiliated withGallaudet University

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An important question often asked when counselors-in-training read textbook discussion of gender role stereotypes, especially of older work such as the classic study by the Brovermans and their colleagues, is “Haven’t these biases been eliminated or at least reduced?” The current study was designed to replicate the work of the Brovermans and their colleagues to answer that specific question and to determine how current counselors-in-training perceive healthy adult women, healthy adult men, and healthy adults. As in the prior research, initial ratings of the social desirability of traditional gender role stereotypes were conducted, and the findings showed many similarities to past research. That investigation was followed by a modified Stereotype Questionnaire, based on the original work of Rosenkrantz, Vogel, Bee, I. Broverman, and D. M. Broverman (1968). Healthy adult women were found to be significantly different from healthy adult men as well as from healthy adults. In addition, the results suggest that there have been changes in counselors’ perceptions of healthy adults. Counselors-in-training were found to hold two standards for mental health—one for women and another for men.


Gender roles Stereotypes Counselors-in-training